Advance C++

1. Computer Programming 2. History of Prog.Language 3. Introduction to C++ 4. OOPS 5. Features of OOPS 6. Evolution of C++ 7. Features of C++ 8. Starting Turbo C++ 9. C++ Tokens 10. Basic requirment of C++ 11. Comments 12. My First Program in C++ 13. Line Break 14. C++ Escape Sequence 15. Constants or Literals 16. Variable in C++ 17. Data Types in C++ 18. Basic/Fundamental/Built-in data types 19. User defined data types 20. Derived data types 21. Range of data types in C++ 22. Declare Variables 23. Reserved Key Words 24. cout<< 25. cin>> 26. Prg.to print sum & average 27. Area & Perimeter of Rectangle 28. Area Circumference of Circle 29. Prg. for Area of Triangle 30. Prg.for Simple Calculator 31. Prg.for Arithmetic operators on char variables 32. Calculate Cubic feet & Gallons of water tank 33. setw(n) function 34. setprecision(n) function 35. Operators in C++ 36. Ex. Of Operators 37. Chained and embedded statement 38. C++ prg. to convert farenheit to centigrade/celsius 39. C++ prg. to calculate Area and third side of triangle 40. C++ prg. to solve quadratic equation 41. C++ prg. to solve simultaneous equations 42. C++ prg. for Unary pre and post increment and decrement 43. C++ prg. for reverse a two digit number 44. C++ prg. for Swap two Numbers 45. Hierarchy of operator 46. If Statement 47. C++ prg. for print larger no of two. 48. if..else statement 49. C++ Prg. to print larger no using if..else. 50. C++ Prg. to check divisibility 51. C++ prg. to check leap year 52. C++ prg.to check triangle 53. Prg.to check Equilateral, Isosecles, Scalene triangle 54. Prg.to Calculate Coefficients of quadratic equation 55. C++ if. Else if program example 56. for. . . loop statement 57. prg.to print series using for..loop 58. Prg.to check divisibility 59. prg.to print sum of series 60. C++ prg.for Sum of Factorial 61. C++ prg.to add each digit 62. C++ prg.to print table for that number 63. C++ prg.to print ASCII chart for upper and Lower case 64. C++ prg.to print largest no and smallest no of all. 65. C++ prg.to print no valid or not and print the no. of days 66. C++ prg.to print the distance covered in every 5 seconds 67. C++ prg.to show the distance covered by airplane in the intervals of 20 seconds 68. C++ prg.to print Fibonacci seriess 69. C++ prg.to print factors, gcd and lcm 70. C++ prg.to print four digit perfect squares 71. C++ prg.to calculates the sine of the angle 72. C++ prg.to calculate simple and compound interest 73. C++ prg.to calculate simple and compound interest 74. Points to keep in mind for pyramid 75. C++ Pyramid Prg. Example for Type1 76. C++ Pyramid Prg. Example for Type2 77. C++ Pyramid Prg. Example for Type3 78. C++ Pyramid Prg. Example for Type4 79. C++ Pyramid Prg. Example for Type5 80. C++ prg.to fill screen 81. prg.for largest/smallest no 82. prg.to print nos i,j,k,l such that i 83. while loop statement 84. prg.to print GCD and LCM using while 85. C++ prg.for Prime numbers 86. C++ prg. to check whether a number is palindrome or not 87. C++ prg. to print maximum and minimum number 88. C++ prg. to print Reverse no 89. C++ prg. to calculate factorial using while loop 90. C++ prg. for Armstrong number 91. do. . While statement 92. goto statement 93. break & continue statement 94. switch,case,default statement 95. C++ prg. to enter month number and print month in character 96. C++ prg. to enter character and check is it Vowel or not 97. C++ prg. to implement a calculator using switch case 98. C++ prg. to calculate sine,cosine or tangent of the angle using switch case 99. Array in C++ 100. Declaring Single Dimensional Array in C++ 101. C++ prg.to print nos in original and reverse sequence using Array 102. Ascending/Descending order 103. C++ prg.to search no in Array 104. Diff. between Linear and Binary Serach in Array 105. C++ prg.to rotate an array of n numbers to the right by 1. 106. C++ prg.to Rotate an Array to the left by 1 107. C++ prg.to insert element in the array 108. C++ prg.to delete element in the array 109. Double Dimension Array in C++ 110. C++ prg.to Enter and print using Double Dimensional Array 111. C++ prg.to input a matrix and print it using two dimensional arrays 112. C++ prg.to enter a matrix and print its transpose 113. C++ prg.to multiply 2 matrices 114. C++ prg.to multiply 3 matrices 115. C++ prg.to print a pascal triangle with / without Array 116. String in C++ 117. C++ prg. to print String with spaces 118. C++ prg.to print string in reverse 119. C++ prg.to count A,E,I,O,U vowel 120. C++ prg.to enter a string and encode it 121. C++ prg.to enter a string with spaces and convert string in capital 122. C++ prg. to enter a character and print consonant or vowel 123. C++ prg. for string with spaces 124. C++ prg. for string sorting in ascending order 125. C++ prg. print & Arrange them in order of Title 126. C++ prg. to check whether a string is palindrome or not 127. Function( ) in C++ 128. What is Function Prototyping or Prototyes? 129. C++ prg. to print max number using function 130. C++ Function program examples 131. C++ Prg. to add 2 integers,floats and strings 132. C++ Examples of Function 133. C++ function to print Prime or Fibonicca number 134. C++ prg. to enter string, remove the space and print it 135. C++ prg. to enter number and check it is Palindrome or not 136. C++ prg. to convert positive integer to Binary number 137. C++ function examples 138. Recursive functions 139. General Purpose Programs 140. Loan & EMI calculation prg. 141. C++ Table print prg. 142. lower to UPPER case prg. 143. Age Distribution prg. 144. Bank note calculation prg. 145. Simple Depreciation prg. 146. Reducing bal.Depreciation prg. 147. C++ company manufactures prg. 148. Marksheet prg. 149. Income Tax prg. 150. Time calculator prg. 151. Distance converter prg. 152. Volume Air Calculation prg. 153. Time to fill Water Tank prg. 154. Salary Calculation prg. 155. Total Sale Calculation prg. 156. Male/Female pecentage prg. 157. Library Rent prg. 158. Office Expance prg. 159. Total Salary Calculation prg. 160. Profit or Loss prg. 161. Total Profit/Loss prg. 162. C++ prg. to Convert Amt to Word. 163. # define directive 164. The # undef DIRECTIVE 165. SCOPE RULES AND STORAGE CLASSES 166. Structures 167. C++ structure program to print result based on merit 168. C++ prg.for entry and search within structure 169. C++ prg.for sort the books by author and name of books 170. C++ prg.for Sort employee in descending order of their salary 171. C++ prg. to write structure student, sort it with marks and then name 172. Pointer to the structure 173. Unions 174. Pointers 175. Classes 176. C++ prg. insert,sort,delete,display and search an element in an array using class 177. C++ prg. to add,subtract,multiply and divide two numbers by using inline functions 178. C++ prg. to add,subtract,multiply and divide two numbers 179. C++ prg. to concatenate two string using forward declaration of member functions 180. C++ prg.find its mean,median,standard deviation. 181. Inline functions 182. Objects 183. Access specifiers 184. C++ prg. Example to pass object as parameter 185. C++ Returning object from a function 186. Friend functions 187. C++ Prg.to swap the values of two variables using friend functions 188. C++ Prg. use friend functions which accepts two arrays and merges them and sorts them 189. Friend class 190. Static members 191. Static functions 192. Constructor and destructor 193. Parameterized constructors 194. Dynamic allocation of memory 195. Copy Constructor 196. Inline constructors 197. Constructor overloading 198. Destructors 199. Polymorphism 200. Operator overloading 201. Inheritance 202. C++ Single inheritance 203. C++ Multiple inheritance 204. C++ Multilevel Inheritance 205. C++ Hierarchical inheritance 206. C++ Hybrid inheritance 207. C++ Multipath inheritance 208. Virtual functions 209. Concrete derived class 210. File Handling 211. Read contents from one file and paste it in other file 212. C++ Interview Part1 213. C++ Interview Part2 214. C++ Interview Part3 215. C++ Interview Part4 216. C++ Interview Part5 217. C++ Interview Part6 218. C++ Interview Part7 219. C++ Interview Part8 220. C++ Interview Part9 221. C++ Interview Part10 222. C++ Interview Part11 223. C++ Interview Part11
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Friend functions tutorials

  • A friend function is a non member of the class which has access to the private and protected data to the class.

 

Characteristics

  • Friends of a class are declared independently in the body of the class preceded by the keyword friend.

  • Usually a friend functions are declared in the public scope but it can be declared in the private scope also. The compiler ignores the access level where friend functions are declared.

  • Friend functions have the minimum one object of the class as its parameter. Because they access the data members with the data members with the object name.

  • The return type of the friend function can be of a primary data type or secondary data type.

  • A friend function cannot be called with an object because only the member functions can be called with an object.

  • One function can be friend of any number of classes. A member of one class can be a friend of another class.

 

Uses of friend functions

  • Friend functions are useful when we are overloading certain types of operators.

  • It makes the creation of some I/O functions easier.

  • Friend functions are useful when two or more classes may contain members that are interrelated to other parts of the program.

  • They improve an interface between a non-class member and the class private members without breaking encapsulation. That is, they allow the syntax for the user code to be intuitive while still maintaining the class’s encapsulation barriers.

 

Program to illustrate friend function to calculate average of 2 numbers.

Sam Madam

//WAP to illustrate friend function

#include <iostream.h>

#include <conio.h>

class data

{

private:

int a;

public:

void input()

{

cout<<endl<<"Enter a value: ";

cin>>a;

}

friend float avg(data,data);

};

float avg(data x,data y)

{

return (x.a+y.a)/2.0;

}

void main()

{

data d1,d2;

d1.input();

d2.input();

cout<<"\nAverage : "<<avg(d1,d2);

getch();

}

Output

Enter a value: 3

Enter a value: 4

Average : 3.5

 

  • Avg() is a normal function from structured programming approach, which is not member of any class. It requires data of objects of class data. Hence both objects are send as arguments. Now members of these objects are accessible if the function is declared as friend in class.

  • Remember, that avg() is not a member of class, hence its definition must be outside without (::).Also it is called without (.) operator. However if function defined inside the class it becomes member of that class.

 

Program to find the number larger than the other number using friend functions

Sam Madam

//WAP to find the number larger than the other number using friend functions

#include <iostream.h>

#include <conio.h>

class Number

{private:

float num;

public: void read()

{cout << "Enter a value: ";

cin >> num;

}

void display()

{cout <<"The number is: "<< num << endl;

}

friend Number max (Number a, Number b);

 

};

Number max (Number a, Number b)

{

return (a.num > b.num?a:b);

}

void main()

{

clrscr();

Number x, y, z;

x.read(); y.read();

z = max(x, y);

z.display();

getch();

}

Output

Enter a value: 3

Enter a value: 5

The number is: 5

 

Program to enter the length and breadth of a rectangle, also enter the side of a square. The program should calculate the area of rectangle and square and it should display which figure has a greater area.The program is to be implemented using friend functions

Sam Madam

/*WAP to enter the length and breadth of a rectangle, also enter the side of a square. The program should calculate the area of rectangle and square and it should display which figure has a greater area.The program is to be implemented using friend functions

*/

#include <iostream.h>

#include <conio.h>

class rectangle;

class square

{ private:

int side;

public:

void read()

{cout << "Enter side: ";

cin >> side;

}

void display()

{cout << "Side = " << side << endl;}

friend void compare(square s, rectangle r);

};

 

class rectangle

{ private:

int l, b;

public:

void read()

{cout << "Enter sides: ";

cin >> l >> b;

}

void display()

{cout << "Length= " << l<< endl << "Breadth = " << b<< endl;}

friend void compare(square s, rectangle r);

};

 

void compare(square s, rectangle r)

{ if(s.side*s.side > r.l*r.b)

cout << "Area of Square is more than Rectangle\n";

else cout << "Area of Rectangle is more than Square\n";

}

 

int main()

{

rectangle a;

square b;

clrscr();

a.read();

b.read();

a.display();

b.display();

compare(b, a);

getch();

return 0;

}

Output

Enter sides: 2 3

Enter side: 5

Length= 2

Breadth = 3

Side = 5

Area of Square is more than Rectangle

 

Enter sides: 5 6

Enter side: 3

Length= 5

Breadth = 6

Side = 3

Area of Rectangle is more than Square

 

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