Advance C++

1. Computer Programming 2. History of Prog.Language 3. Introduction to C++ 4. OOPS 5. Features of OOPS 6. Evolution of C++ 7. Features of C++ 8. Starting Turbo C++ 9. C++ Tokens 10. Basic requirment of C++ 11. Comments 12. My First Program in C++ 13. Line Break 14. C++ Escape Sequence 15. Constants or Literals 16. Variable in C++ 17. Data Types in C++ 18. Basic/Fundamental/Built-in data types 19. User defined data types 20. Derived data types 21. Range of data types in C++ 22. Declare Variables 23. Reserved Key Words 24. cout<< 25. cin>> 26. Prg.to print sum & average 27. Area & Perimeter of Rectangle 28. Area Circumference of Circle 29. Prg. for Area of Triangle 30. Prg.for Simple Calculator 31. Prg.for Arithmetic operators on char variables 32. Calculate Cubic feet & Gallons of water tank 33. setw(n) function 34. setprecision(n) function 35. Operators in C++ 36. Ex. Of Operators 37. Chained and embedded statement 38. C++ prg. to convert farenheit to centigrade/celsius 39. C++ prg. to calculate Area and third side of triangle 40. C++ prg. to solve quadratic equation 41. C++ prg. to solve simultaneous equations 42. C++ prg. for Unary pre and post increment and decrement 43. C++ prg. for reverse a two digit number 44. C++ prg. for Swap two Numbers 45. Hierarchy of operator 46. If Statement 47. C++ prg. for print larger no of two. 48. if..else statement 49. C++ Prg. to print larger no using if..else. 50. C++ Prg. to check divisibility 51. C++ prg. to check leap year 52. C++ prg.to check triangle 53. Prg.to check Equilateral, Isosecles, Scalene triangle 54. Prg.to Calculate Coefficients of quadratic equation 55. C++ if. Else if program example 56. for. . . loop statement 57. prg.to print series using for..loop 58. Prg.to check divisibility 59. prg.to print sum of series 60. C++ prg.for Sum of Factorial 61. C++ prg.to add each digit 62. C++ prg.to print table for that number 63. C++ prg.to print ASCII chart for upper and Lower case 64. C++ prg.to print largest no and smallest no of all. 65. C++ prg.to print no valid or not and print the no. of days 66. C++ prg.to print the distance covered in every 5 seconds 67. C++ prg.to show the distance covered by airplane in the intervals of 20 seconds 68. C++ prg.to print Fibonacci seriess 69. C++ prg.to print factors, gcd and lcm 70. C++ prg.to print four digit perfect squares 71. C++ prg.to calculates the sine of the angle 72. C++ prg.to calculate simple and compound interest 73. C++ prg.to calculate simple and compound interest 74. Points to keep in mind for pyramid 75. C++ Pyramid Prg. Example for Type1 76. C++ Pyramid Prg. Example for Type2 77. C++ Pyramid Prg. Example for Type3 78. C++ Pyramid Prg. Example for Type4 79. C++ Pyramid Prg. Example for Type5 80. C++ prg.to fill screen 81. prg.for largest/smallest no 82. prg.to print nos i,j,k,l such that i 83. while loop statement 84. prg.to print GCD and LCM using while 85. C++ prg.for Prime numbers 86. C++ prg. to check whether a number is palindrome or not 87. C++ prg. to print maximum and minimum number 88. C++ prg. to print Reverse no 89. C++ prg. to calculate factorial using while loop 90. C++ prg. for Armstrong number 91. do. . While statement 92. goto statement 93. break & continue statement 94. switch,case,default statement 95. C++ prg. to enter month number and print month in character 96. C++ prg. to enter character and check is it Vowel or not 97. C++ prg. to implement a calculator using switch case 98. C++ prg. to calculate sine,cosine or tangent of the angle using switch case 99. Array in C++ 100. Declaring Single Dimensional Array in C++ 101. C++ prg.to print nos in original and reverse sequence using Array 102. Ascending/Descending order 103. C++ prg.to search no in Array 104. Diff. between Linear and Binary Serach in Array 105. C++ prg.to rotate an array of n numbers to the right by 1. 106. C++ prg.to Rotate an Array to the left by 1 107. C++ prg.to insert element in the array 108. C++ prg.to delete element in the array 109. Double Dimension Array in C++ 110. C++ prg.to Enter and print using Double Dimensional Array 111. C++ prg.to input a matrix and print it using two dimensional arrays 112. C++ prg.to enter a matrix and print its transpose 113. C++ prg.to multiply 2 matrices 114. C++ prg.to multiply 3 matrices 115. C++ prg.to print a pascal triangle with / without Array 116. String in C++ 117. C++ prg. to print String with spaces 118. C++ prg.to print string in reverse 119. C++ prg.to count A,E,I,O,U vowel 120. C++ prg.to enter a string and encode it 121. C++ prg.to enter a string with spaces and convert string in capital 122. C++ prg. to enter a character and print consonant or vowel 123. C++ prg. for string with spaces 124. C++ prg. for string sorting in ascending order 125. C++ prg. print & Arrange them in order of Title 126. C++ prg. to check whether a string is palindrome or not 127. Function( ) in C++ 128. What is Function Prototyping or Prototyes? 129. C++ prg. to print max number using function 130. C++ Function program examples 131. C++ Prg. to add 2 integers,floats and strings 132. C++ Examples of Function 133. C++ function to print Prime or Fibonicca number 134. C++ prg. to enter string, remove the space and print it 135. C++ prg. to enter number and check it is Palindrome or not 136. C++ prg. to convert positive integer to Binary number 137. C++ function examples 138. Recursive functions 139. General Purpose Programs 140. Loan & EMI calculation prg. 141. C++ Table print prg. 142. lower to UPPER case prg. 143. Age Distribution prg. 144. Bank note calculation prg. 145. Simple Depreciation prg. 146. Reducing bal.Depreciation prg. 147. C++ company manufactures prg. 148. Marksheet prg. 149. Income Tax prg. 150. Time calculator prg. 151. Distance converter prg. 152. Volume Air Calculation prg. 153. Time to fill Water Tank prg. 154. Salary Calculation prg. 155. Total Sale Calculation prg. 156. Male/Female pecentage prg. 157. Library Rent prg. 158. Office Expance prg. 159. Total Salary Calculation prg. 160. Profit or Loss prg. 161. Total Profit/Loss prg. 162. C++ prg. to Convert Amt to Word. 163. # define directive 164. The # undef DIRECTIVE 165. SCOPE RULES AND STORAGE CLASSES 166. Structures 167. C++ structure program to print result based on merit 168. C++ prg.for entry and search within structure 169. C++ prg.for sort the books by author and name of books 170. C++ prg.for Sort employee in descending order of their salary 171. C++ prg. to write structure student, sort it with marks and then name 172. Pointer to the structure 173. Unions 174. Pointers 175. Classes 176. C++ prg. insert,sort,delete,display and search an element in an array using class 177. C++ prg. to add,subtract,multiply and divide two numbers by using inline functions 178. C++ prg. to add,subtract,multiply and divide two numbers 179. C++ prg. to concatenate two string using forward declaration of member functions 180. C++ prg.find its mean,median,standard deviation. 181. Inline functions 182. Objects 183. Access specifiers 184. C++ prg. Example to pass object as parameter 185. C++ Returning object from a function 186. Friend functions 187. C++ Prg.to swap the values of two variables using friend functions 188. C++ Prg. use friend functions which accepts two arrays and merges them and sorts them 189. Friend class 190. Static members 191. Static functions 192. Constructor and destructor 193. Parameterized constructors 194. Dynamic allocation of memory 195. Copy Constructor 196. Inline constructors 197. Constructor overloading 198. Destructors 199. Polymorphism 200. Operator overloading 201. Inheritance 202. C++ Single inheritance 203. C++ Multiple inheritance 204. C++ Multilevel Inheritance 205. C++ Hierarchical inheritance 206. C++ Hybrid inheritance 207. C++ Multipath inheritance 208. Virtual functions 209. Concrete derived class 210. File Handling 211. Read contents from one file and paste it in other file 212. C++ Interview Part1 213. C++ Interview Part2 214. C++ Interview Part3 215. C++ Interview Part4 216. C++ Interview Part5 217. C++ Interview Part6 218. C++ Interview Part7 219. C++ Interview Part8 220. C++ Interview Part9 221. C++ Interview Part10 222. C++ Interview Part11 223. C++ Interview Part11
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SCOPE RULES AND STORAGE CLASSES tutorials

  • The storage class determines the life of a variable in terms of its duration or its scope.

  • There are four storage classes in c++:

    1. Automatic

    2. Static

    3. External

    4. Register

 

AUTOMATIC VARIABLES

  • Automatic variables are variables, which are defined within a function.

  • Automatic variables lose their value when the function terminates. In other words, the duration of an automatic variable is the duration of the function in which it is declared and the scope is the functionís code.

  • It can be accessed only in that function.

  • A variable can be declared as an automatic variable with the keyword auto.

  • Since the automatic variables donít exist after the function, in which they are declared, is over, they cannot retain their values over a number of function calls to that function.

 

Program to use automatic variable in cpp

Sam Madam

//Program using automatic variable

#include <iostream.h>

#include<iostream.h>

void print()

{

autoint i=0;

cout<< "value of I before incrementing = "<< i<< " \n" ;

i +=10;

cout<< "value of I after incrementing = "<< i <<" \n" ;

}

 

void main(void)

{

print ( ) ;

print ( ) ;

print ( ) ;

}

Output

value of I before incrementing = 0

value of I after incrementing = 10

value of I before incrementing = 0

value of I after incrementing = 10

value of I before incrementing = 0

value of I after incrementing = 10

 

  • The main() function calls (executes) print () function three times.

  • The first statement of the print() function starts with defining automatic integer variable i and it is initialized as o.

  • The second statement i.e. cout statement prints value of i and the next statement i.e. i + =10 (which is same as i = i + 10) is an assignment statement which increases value of i by 10.

  • The last statement of the print() function is used to print value of I after incrementing its value by 10.

  • The print() function ends here and as i is automatic variable it loses its value.It does not retain its value each time the function is executed.


 

STATIC VARIABLES

  • A variable is said to be static if it is allocated storage at the beginning of the program execution and the storage remains allocated until the program execution terminates.

  • Static variables like the automatic variables can be accessed only the function in which they are declared. But, the static variables retain their values over a number of function calls.

  • The life of a static variable starts, when the first time the function, in which it is declared, is executed and it remains in existence, till the program terminates.

  • Static variables are declared with keyword static.

  • Unlike with auto variables, the initialization takes place only once, when the function, in which the variable is declared, is executed for first time.

  • If not explicitly initialized, static variables are assigned the default initial value of zero.

 

Program to use static variable in cpp

Sam Madam

#include<iostream.h>

#include <conio.h>

void print( )

{

staticint i =0 ;

cout<<"value of I before incrementing = "<<i<<" \n" ;

i +=10 ;

cout<<"value of I after incrementing = "<<i<<" \n" ;

}

 

void main( )

{

print ( ) ;

print ( ) ;

print ( ) ;

}

 

Output

value of I before incrementing = 0

value of I after incrementing = 10

value of I before incrementing = 10

value of I after incrementing = 20

value of I before incrementing = 20

value of I after incrementing = 30

 

  • The main() function calls (executes) print () function three times.

  • The first statement of the print() function starts with defining static integer variable i and initialized it to o.

  • The second statement i.e. cout statement prints value of i and the next statement i.e. i + =10 (which is same as I = I + 10) is an assignment statement which increases value of i by 10.

  • The last statement of the print() function is used to print value of i after incrementing its value by 10.

  • The print() function ends here.The output given below shows the value of I incremented by 10 from 0 through 30 as static variable i is assigned the value 0 only once , when print() is first executed, and its value is retained from one function call to the next.

 

Program to show difference between auto and static variables

Sam Madam

//Program to show difference between auto and static variables

#include <iostream.h>

void print( )

{

autoint a =0 ;

staticint s =0 ;

cout<<" auto = "<<a++<<" static = "<<s++ <<" \n " ;

}

void main( )

{

print ( ) ;

print ( ) ;

print ( ) ;

}

Output

auto = 0 static = 0

auto = 0 static = 1

auto = 0 static = 2

 

 

  • The print() function starts with defining automatic i.e. auto integer variable a which is initialized to 0. The second statement defines static integer variable s, which is also initialized to zero.

  • The output given below shows the value of auto variable a as 0 for each line of display, and that of static variable s incremented by 1 from 0 through 2. This is what is expected, for while auto variable a is assigned the value 0 each time the function print() is called, static variable s is assigned the value 0 only once, when print() is first executed, and its value is retained from one function call to the next.

 

EXTERNAL VARIABLES

  • Different functions of the same program can be written in different source files and can be compiled together.

  • The scope of global variable is not limited to any one function, but is extended to all the functions that are defined after it is declared.

  • However, the scope of global variable is limited to only those functions that are defined in the physical source file, in which it is declared.

  • If a global variable declared in a source file is required in a function defined in another source file, then external variables are to be used. External variables are declared with the keyword extern.

  • Any changes to the extern variables done by the functions of a file are reflected in the functions of all other files.

 

Program to use extern variable in cpp

Sam Madam

#include <iostream.h>

void main(void)

{

long factorial ( intnum) ;

intnum ;

cout<<"Enter a number: " ;

cin>>num ;

cout<<"Factorial of "<<num<<" is"<<factorial(num) ;

}

 

extern long factorial( int n)

{

if (n= = 1)

return(1) ;

return (n * factorial(n-1));

}

Output

Enter a number: 3

Factorial of 3 is 6

 

Enter a number :5

Factorial of 5 is 120

 

REGISTER VARIABLES

  • Computers have internal registers, which are used to store data temporarily, before any operation can be performed on it.

  • Intermediate results of calculations are stored in registers.

  • Operations can be performed on the data stored in registers more quickly than on the data stored in memory.

  • If a particular variable is used often- for instance, the control variable in a loop- it can be assigned a register, rather than an allocation in the memory.

  • Using the keyword register does this. However, the compiler assigns a register only if it is free, otherwise it is taken as automatic variables.

  • Also, register variables cannot be global variables.

 

Program to use register variable in cpp

Sam Madam

//Program using register variable

#include<iostream.h>

void main(void)

{

registerint I ;

for( i = o ; i < 3 ; + +i )

cout<< i <<" \n " ;

}

Output

0

1

2

 

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