Advance C++

1. Computer Programming 2. History of Prog.Language 3. Introduction to C++ 4. OOPS 5. Features of OOPS 6. Evolution of C++ 7. Features of C++ 8. Starting Turbo C++ 9. C++ Tokens 10. Basic requirment of C++ 11. Comments 12. My First Program in C++ 13. Line Break 14. C++ Escape Sequence 15. Constants or Literals 16. Variable in C++ 17. Data Types in C++ 18. Basic/Fundamental/Built-in data types 19. User defined data types 20. Derived data types 21. Range of data types in C++ 22. Declare Variables 23. Reserved Key Words 24. cout<< 25. cin>> 26. Prg.to print sum & average 27. Area & Perimeter of Rectangle 28. Area Circumference of Circle 29. Prg. for Area of Triangle 30. Prg.for Simple Calculator 31. Prg.for Arithmetic operators on char variables 32. Calculate Cubic feet & Gallons of water tank 33. setw(n) function 34. setprecision(n) function 35. Operators in C++ 36. Ex. Of Operators 37. Chained and embedded statement 38. C++ prg. to convert farenheit to centigrade/celsius 39. C++ prg. to calculate Area and third side of triangle 40. C++ prg. to solve quadratic equation 41. C++ prg. to solve simultaneous equations 42. C++ prg. for Unary pre and post increment and decrement 43. C++ prg. for reverse a two digit number 44. C++ prg. for Swap two Numbers 45. Hierarchy of operator 46. If Statement 47. C++ prg. for print larger no of two. 48. if..else statement 49. C++ Prg. to print larger no using if..else. 50. C++ Prg. to check divisibility 51. C++ prg. to check leap year 52. C++ prg.to check triangle 53. Prg.to check Equilateral, Isosecles, Scalene triangle 54. Prg.to Calculate Coefficients of quadratic equation 55. C++ if. Else if program example 56. for. . . loop statement 57. prg.to print series using for..loop 58. Prg.to check divisibility 59. prg.to print sum of series 60. C++ prg.for Sum of Factorial 61. C++ prg.to add each digit 62. C++ prg.to print table for that number 63. C++ prg.to print ASCII chart for upper and Lower case 64. C++ prg.to print largest no and smallest no of all. 65. C++ prg.to print no valid or not and print the no. of days 66. C++ prg.to print the distance covered in every 5 seconds 67. C++ prg.to show the distance covered by airplane in the intervals of 20 seconds 68. C++ prg.to print Fibonacci seriess 69. C++ prg.to print factors, gcd and lcm 70. C++ prg.to print four digit perfect squares 71. C++ prg.to calculates the sine of the angle 72. C++ prg.to calculate simple and compound interest 73. C++ prg.to calculate simple and compound interest 74. Points to keep in mind for pyramid 75. C++ Pyramid Prg. Example for Type1 76. C++ Pyramid Prg. Example for Type2 77. C++ Pyramid Prg. Example for Type3 78. C++ Pyramid Prg. Example for Type4 79. C++ Pyramid Prg. Example for Type5 80. C++ prg.to fill screen 81. prg.for largest/smallest no 82. prg.to print nos i,j,k,l such that i 83. while loop statement 84. prg.to print GCD and LCM using while 85. C++ prg.for Prime numbers 86. C++ prg. to check whether a number is palindrome or not 87. C++ prg. to print maximum and minimum number 88. C++ prg. to print Reverse no 89. C++ prg. to calculate factorial using while loop 90. C++ prg. for Armstrong number 91. do. . While statement 92. goto statement 93. break & continue statement 94. switch,case,default statement 95. C++ prg. to enter month number and print month in character 96. C++ prg. to enter character and check is it Vowel or not 97. C++ prg. to implement a calculator using switch case 98. C++ prg. to calculate sine,cosine or tangent of the angle using switch case 99. Array in C++ 100. Declaring Single Dimensional Array in C++ 101. C++ prg.to print nos in original and reverse sequence using Array 102. Ascending/Descending order 103. C++ prg.to search no in Array 104. Diff. between Linear and Binary Serach in Array 105. C++ prg.to rotate an array of n numbers to the right by 1. 106. C++ prg.to Rotate an Array to the left by 1 107. C++ prg.to insert element in the array 108. C++ prg.to delete element in the array 109. Double Dimension Array in C++ 110. C++ prg.to Enter and print using Double Dimensional Array 111. C++ prg.to input a matrix and print it using two dimensional arrays 112. C++ prg.to enter a matrix and print its transpose 113. C++ prg.to multiply 2 matrices 114. C++ prg.to multiply 3 matrices 115. C++ prg.to print a pascal triangle with / without Array 116. String in C++ 117. C++ prg. to print String with spaces 118. C++ prg.to print string in reverse 119. C++ prg.to count A,E,I,O,U vowel 120. C++ prg.to enter a string and encode it 121. C++ prg.to enter a string with spaces and convert string in capital 122. C++ prg. to enter a character and print consonant or vowel 123. C++ prg. for string with spaces 124. C++ prg. for string sorting in ascending order 125. C++ prg. print & Arrange them in order of Title 126. C++ prg. to check whether a string is palindrome or not 127. Function( ) in C++ 128. What is Function Prototyping or Prototyes? 129. C++ prg. to print max number using function 130. C++ Function program examples 131. C++ Prg. to add 2 integers,floats and strings 132. C++ Examples of Function 133. C++ function to print Prime or Fibonicca number 134. C++ prg. to enter string, remove the space and print it 135. C++ prg. to enter number and check it is Palindrome or not 136. C++ prg. to convert positive integer to Binary number 137. C++ function examples 138. Recursive functions 139. General Purpose Programs 140. Loan & EMI calculation prg. 141. C++ Table print prg. 142. lower to UPPER case prg. 143. Age Distribution prg. 144. Bank note calculation prg. 145. Simple Depreciation prg. 146. Reducing bal.Depreciation prg. 147. C++ company manufactures prg. 148. Marksheet prg. 149. Income Tax prg. 150. Time calculator prg. 151. Distance converter prg. 152. Volume Air Calculation prg. 153. Time to fill Water Tank prg. 154. Salary Calculation prg. 155. Total Sale Calculation prg. 156. Male/Female pecentage prg. 157. Library Rent prg. 158. Office Expance prg. 159. Total Salary Calculation prg. 160. Profit or Loss prg. 161. Total Profit/Loss prg. 162. C++ prg. to Convert Amt to Word. 163. # define directive 164. The # undef DIRECTIVE 165. SCOPE RULES AND STORAGE CLASSES 166. Structures 167. C++ structure program to print result based on merit 168. C++ prg.for entry and search within structure 169. C++ prg.for sort the books by author and name of books 170. C++ prg.for Sort employee in descending order of their salary 171. C++ prg. to write structure student, sort it with marks and then name 172. Pointer to the structure 173. Unions 174. Pointers 175. Classes 176. C++ prg. insert,sort,delete,display and search an element in an array using class 177. C++ prg. to add,subtract,multiply and divide two numbers by using inline functions 178. C++ prg. to add,subtract,multiply and divide two numbers 179. C++ prg. to concatenate two string using forward declaration of member functions 180. C++ prg.find its mean,median,standard deviation. 181. Inline functions 182. Objects 183. Access specifiers 184. C++ prg. Example to pass object as parameter 185. C++ Returning object from a function 186. Friend functions 187. C++ Prg.to swap the values of two variables using friend functions 188. C++ Prg. use friend functions which accepts two arrays and merges them and sorts them 189. Friend class 190. Static members 191. Static functions 192. Constructor and destructor 193. Parameterized constructors 194. Dynamic allocation of memory 195. Copy Constructor 196. Inline constructors 197. Constructor overloading 198. Destructors 199. Polymorphism 200. Operator overloading 201. Inheritance 202. C++ Single inheritance 203. C++ Multiple inheritance 204. C++ Multilevel Inheritance 205. C++ Hierarchical inheritance 206. C++ Hybrid inheritance 207. C++ Multipath inheritance 208. Virtual functions 209. Concrete derived class 210. File Handling 211. Read contents from one file and paste it in other file 212. C++ Interview Part1 213. C++ Interview Part2 214. C++ Interview Part3 215. C++ Interview Part4 216. C++ Interview Part5 217. C++ Interview Part6 218. C++ Interview Part7 219. C++ Interview Part8 220. C++ Interview Part9 221. C++ Interview Part10 222. C++ Interview Part11 223. C++ Interview Part11
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Structures tutorials

  • If all the data elements of a program are of the same data types, it can be stored in Array. For example Marks of 10 students as mark[10], Roll no of 10 students as Rollno[10] and so on.

  • However if all the data elements of a programs are from different data types then in such cases Array can't be used.

  • For example if you need to store data of several students, then there are different data types and for such case Structure is suitable.

  • A structure is a collection of data of similar or different data types. It can represent a record.

  • Structure is a collection of logically related data items, grouped together under a single name called structure tag.

  • The data items that make up a structure are called members or fields.

  • Since a structure is derived from other data types, it is called a derived data type or user defined data types.

  • In short a structure is a heterogeneous user defined data type that contains different data types.

 

Declaring a structure

  • Declaration of structure is called structure specifiers.

  • Structure specifiers is a declaration, hence memory is not allotted.

  • A function may have declaration as well as definition, whereas structure must have declaration as well as definition.

  • Unlike functions, declaration is compulsory for structure.

  • The declaration starts with the reserved word struct, followed by the name of structure.

  • Following structure name it begins with curly braces.

  • Within { } curly braces, declaration specify the members of the structure.

 

struct student

{

introllno ;

char name[20] ;

float percent ;

};

 

  • In above example name of the structure is student, which acts as data type for defining variable.

  • The identifier student names the structure, and is called the structure tag or simply tag.

  • Within { } we have declared rollno, name and percent are members or field.

  • Members can be of any data types. It can be common data types such as (int,float,char),pointer, array, structure or even bit fields.

  • A structure can also be member of another structure, which is called as nested structure.

  • The closing bracket "}" is followed with semicolon ";".

  • The structure members are maintained in contiguous memory locations.

 

Declaring and initializing structure variables

  • Structure variables can be declared in following ways.

    1. In structure declaration

    2. Using structure tag

 

1.    Declaring structure variable using structure declaration

  • The structure variables can be declared after closing curly brace.

For example

 

struct student

{

introllno ;

char name[20] ;

float percent ;

} s1,s2,s3;

 

2.    Declaring structure variable using structure tag

  • The variables of structure may also be declared separately by using the structure tag as follows.

 

struct student s1,s2,s3;

or

student s1,s2,s3;

 

Program to demonstrate declaring and initializing structure variables in c++

Sam Madam

#include<iostream.h>

struct student

{

introllno;

char name[20];

float percent;

}s1={101,"SAM",80.75}; // declare and initialize s1 variable

 

void main()

{

struct student s2,s3,s4={104,"John",75.00}; // declare s2,s3,s4 variables and initialize s4

 

cout<<"\n Enter Roll no of student :";

cin>>s2.rollno;

cout<<"\n Enter name of student :";

cin>>s2.name ;

cout<<"\n Enter Percentage :" ;

cin>>s2.percent;

s3=s2; // copy s2 into s3

cout<<"\n"<<s1.rollno<<" "<<s1.name<<" "<<s1.percent<<endl;

cout<<"\n"<<s2.rollno<<" "<<s2.name<<" "<<s2.percent<<endl;

cout<<"\n"<<s3.rollno<<" "<<s3.name<<" "<<s3.percent<<endl;

cout<<"\n"<<s4.rollno<<" "<<s4.name<<" "<<s4.percent<<endl;

}

 

Output

Enter Roll no of student :102

Enter name of student :sush

Enter Percentage :98.5

 

101 SAM 80.75

 

102 sush 98.5

 

102 sush 98.5

 

104 John 75

  • In above program s1 variable is declared and initialize along with structure declaration.

  • Variable s2,s3 and s4 are declared using struct statement and at same time, variable s4 is initialize.

  • In variable s2 we are entering data using regular cin input method.

  • Member of s2 structure variables are copied to s3

 

Program to create a structure to accept a complex number in the form of x+iy and print it

Sam Madam

// WAP to create a structure to accept a complex number in the form of x+iy and print it

#include <iostream.h>

#include <conio.h>

struct complex

{

float real,imag;

};

void main()

{

complex c1,c2;

cout <<"\nEnter the real part for the first complex number: ";

cin>>c1.real;

cout <<"\nEnter the imaginary part for the first complex number: ";

cin>>c1.imag;

cout <<"\nEnter the real part for the second complex number: ";

cin>>c2.real;

cout <<"\nEnter the imaginary part for the second complex number: ";

cin>>c2.imag;

cout <<endl<<"First complex number: "<<c1.real<<" + i"<<c1.imag;

cout <<endl<<"Second complex number: "<<c2.real<<" + i"<<c2.imag;

getch();

}

 

Output

Enter the real part for the first complex number: 2

 

Enter the imaginary part for the first complex number: 3

 

Enter the real part for the second complex number: 4.5

 

Enter the imaginary part for the second complex number: 13

 

First complex number: 2 + i3

Second complex number: 4.5 + i13

 

Accessing members

  • Members of structure variable are accessed by dot (.) operator. For example s1.rollno, s1.name, s1.percert.

  • One cannot perform any operation on structure variable.

  • Operation such as input, output and other operations are carried out on member variables.

  • Copying of one structure variable into another structure variable is permitted. Here member to member coping takes place.

  • Structure variable can be sent to function and it can be returned from function. In such cases argument type and return type of function is structure type.

  • Member of a structure variable can be accessed by a pointer variable such as p - >name.

  • In short Dot (.) operator is used for normal variable and ( -> ) operator is used with pointer variable.Dot(.) operator is used where the structure is passed by value and the pointer (->)operator is used where the structure is passed by address.

 

Sending a structure to a function

  • If a function has a structure as a parameter the entire structure has to be sent as a parameter.

  • If only one member of the structure is required then only that variable is sent to the function.

  • For functions having the return data types that of the structure.In that case the structure variable must be copied to another structure variable of the same type in calling function first and then members can be accessed.

 

Array of structures

  • Since structure is a data type an array of structures can also be created.

  • For eg. To maintain the records of 50 employees we just need to declare an array of employee structures can be created.

  • Let us consider the following example

 

struct employee

{

char name[40];

float salary;

};

 

  • An array of employee can be declared as

employee e[5];

 

  • Each member of the employee array can be accessed as the same way we access the array elements of a fundamental data type

 

employee e[5];

for (int i=0;i<5;i++)

{

cout<<endl<<”Enter the name of the employee : ”;

cin>>e[i].name;

cout<<endl<<”Enter the salary of the employee : ”;

cin>>e[i].salary;

}

 

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