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Introduction tutorials

 

What is Android?

  • Android is a mobile operating system, similar to Symbian, iOS, Windows® Mobile, and others.

  • It was initially developed by Android Inc., a company later purchased by Google.

  • It is now owned by the Open Handset Alliance and is fully open sourced, accounting for its growing popularity.

  • Google released most of the Android code under the Apache License.

  • With this license, vendors can add proprietary extensions without submitting them back to the open source community.

  • Many versions of Android have hit the market since its inception (the most recent as of Q4 2013), including the power-packed Kitkat (V4.4).

  • Android has moved beyond simply being a platform for mobile devices; the new Google TV also runs on Android.

  • Android uses a modified Linux® kernel and allows applications to be developed in Java™ technology using Java libraries (some of which were developed by Google for Android).

 

History of Android

Version

API Level

Android 1.0

1

Android 1.1

2

Android 1.5 Cupcake

3

Android 1.6 Donut

4

Android 2.0 Eclair

5

Android 2.0.1 Eclair

6

Android 2.1 Eclair

7

Android 2.2-2.2.3 Froyo

8

Android 2.3-2.3.2 Gingerbread

9

Android 2.3.3-2.3.7 Gingerbread

10

Android 3.0 Honeycomb

11

Android 3.1 Honeycomb

12

Android 3.2 Honeycomb

13

Android 4.0-4.0.2 Ice Cream Sandwich

14

Android 4.0.3-4.0.4 Ice Cream Sandwich

15

Android 4.1 Jelly Bean

16

Android 4.2 Jelly Bean

17

Android 4.3 Jelly Bean

18

Android 4.4 KITKAT

19

 

Software required to make Android Application run on a device

  • While Android applications are written in the Java language, there's no Java Virtual Machine in the platform, and Java byte code is not executed.

  • Java classes are recompiled into Dalvik executables and run on a Dalvik virtual machine.

  • Dalvik is a modified VM for Android and optimized devices running on battery power and with low CPU.

  • For developers, Android SDK provides a rich set of tools, including debugger, libraries, handset emulator, documentation, sample code, and tutorials.

  • Android applications can be easily developed using Eclipse (Android's official development platform) with the help of a plug-in called Android Development Tools (ADT).

  • This helps leverage Eclipse's rich features, such as content assist, Java search, open resources, JUnit integration, and different views and perspectives for developing an Android app.

  • A wide array of widgets, which are similar to Java swing widgets, facilitate in creating a rich UI for the apps.

  • A detailed Javadoc makes the development process quite easy. Here, we start with a guide for preparing the system for Android development.

 

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