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IPv4 address classes tutorials

  • IP addresses are divided into 5 classes ie. A,B,C,D,E

  • Only addresses from class A,B & C are assigned to organization

  • Addresses from class D & E are reserved for special purpose.

  • Address 127.0.0.1 is reserved for loop-back address.

  • If any pc does not have network card then we can install MS LOOP BACK adaptor, and although LAN Card is not present, it act as if there is LAN card.

 

Class

Range of first byte

Number of network

Host per network

Default subnet mask

A

1 126

27 2 = 126

224 - 2 i.e. 16,777,214

255.0.0.0

B

128 - 191

214 -2 = 16,384

216 2 i.e. 65,534

255.255.0.0

C

192 223

221-2= 2,097,150

28 2 i.e. 254

255.255.255.0

D

224 - 239

TCP/IP defines Class D for Multicast address

E

240 255

Reserved for Experiment, Research and Development

 

PRIVATE IPv4 ADDRESS

  • Private addresses can be used if the network is not directly connected to internet

  • The network can connect to internet using proxy server or fire-wall

  • These addresses are used for internal networks.

 

CLASS

START ADDRESS

END ADDRESS

SUBNET MASK

A

10.0.0.0

10.255.255.255

255.0.0.0

B

172.16.0.0

172.31.255.255

255.240.0.0

C

192.168.0.0

192.255.255.

255.255.0.0

 

IPv4 Address can be assigned by following 3 types

1) Static IP Address (Assigned Manually)

2) Dynamic IP Address

3) APIPA Automatic Private IP Address

 

1) STATIC IP ADDRESS:-

  • Static IP are manually assigned to NIC card by hardware engineer. When you manually assign an IP address, you must manually assign other TCP/IP address options such as subnet mask and default gateway.

 

2) DYNAMIC IP ADDRESSES:-

  • Dynamic IP addresses are automatically assigned to computers by DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server. When a DHCP dynamically assign an IP address, the server also assign subnet mask and default gateway.

 

3) APIPA Automatic Private IP Address

  • APIPA are used when a computer is configured for DHCP to assign IP Address, however DHCP server is unavailable for some reason. In this case APIPA will assign IP address in the range from 169.254.0.1 to 169.254.255.254 with the subnet mask of 255.255.0.0.


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