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Networking Terms tutorials

NIC Card:

  • Network interface card (NIC): Connects a PC to a LAN, commonly known as LAN card.

 

Medium:

  • The physical transport used to carry data. Most of the time, this can be just a cable twisted-pair, CAT cable, fiber or Air (for wireless transmission).

 

Protocol

  • A set of communication rules used by computer or network devices.

 

Cisco IOS Software:

  • The most widely deployed network system software. Cisco IOS services include basic connec≠tivity, security, network management & other adv. services.

 

Client:

  • A computer or device that requests information from a server.

 

Server:

  • A computer or device that provides services of information to clients.

 

Network operating system (NOS):

  • Refers to the operating system running on servers. This includes Windows 2003 Server, Novell NetWare, UNIX, and Linux.

 

Connectivity device:

  • Any device that connects cable segments, connects two or more small networks into a larger one, or divides a large network into small ones.

 

Topology:

  • Defines the design of the network. Most common topologies are BUS, RING, STAR, MESH and HYBRID.

 

Physical topology:

  • These shapes include linear bus, ring, star, and mesh. It defines the physical shape & components of the network cables, network devices, and so on.

 

Logical topology:

  • It is the path that data takes from one computer to another.

 

Speed:

  • Also called data rate, speed is how fast data is transmitted over the network.

 

Cost:

  • The general cost of network components, installation, and maintenance.

 

Security:

  • Defines how secure the network and network data are.

 

Availability:

  • The measure of the likelihood that the network will be available for use when

  • required. Calculated using the following formula:

[(525,600 - Minutes downtime) / 525,600] * 100.

[Here :- 525,600 is the total number of minutes in a year i.e. 365*24*60]

 

Scalability:

  • How well the network can accommodate more users and more data.

 

Reliability:

  • The dependability of the devices that make up the network (for example, switches, routers, PCs, and so on).

 

Unicast

  • Data sent between one device to another device, i.e. 1 to 1

 

Multicast

  • Data sent between one to many devices

 

Broadcast

  • data that is send to one to all devices on the network. Stations view broadcast frames as public service announcements.

 

PROTOCOL

  • Protocol is set of rules used to define communication between two devices.

 

AAA

  • Authentication, Authorization, Accounting

  • Authentication is a process of validating the username and password submitted by user during login. If the authentication is successful, the server returns the userís security rights. If unsuccessful the user is denied access.

  • Authorization determines what the user or device is allowed to do. It has more to do with rights in a network

  • Accounting records information about access attempts, including inappropriate request

 

CSMA/CD

  • All stations on an Ethernet segment are connected to the same media. Therefore, all devices receive all signals. When devices send signals at the same time, a collision occurs. A scheme is needed to detect and compensate for collisions. Ethernet uses a method called CSMA/CD, Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detect to detect collisions.

  • It is a media access mechanism in which device ready to transmit data first check the channel for a carrier. If no carrier is sensed for a specific period of time, a device can transmit. If two devices transmit at same time, a collision occurs and is detected by all colliding devices. This collision subsequently delays retransmission from those devices for some time.

 

Octet

  • An Octet, is made up of 8 Bits. It is just ordinary 8 bit Binary number.

 

127.0.0.1

  • This IP address is reserved for loopback test. It is designated for local node and allows the node to send a test packet to itself without generating network traffic.

 

OSI

  • Open Systems Interconnection Model, developed and adopted in 1977. it defines how hardware and software should be developed to support specific functions for communication between devices.

 

ISO

  • International Organization for Standardization, is a organization dedicated to defining global communication and standards.

 

Compression

  • is the process of shrinking large piece of data. This allows data to be transferred more quickly across the network.

 

Encryption

  • The process of converting data into a random set of characters that is unrecognizable to everyone except the intended recipient.

 

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