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ROUTERS tutorials

 

  • Routers are network layer device that are extremely intelligent.

  • It can connect different network segments that may be located within same building or thousand miles apart.

  • It works with LAN, MAN and WAN environment.

  • It allows you to access the resources within or beyond your LAN by using the best path to the resources.

  • It can also be used to interconnect different types of networks such as token ring and Ethernet network.

  • It changes the packet’s size and format to fit the type of destination network on which the packets are being sent.

  • It has 2 primary function

    a) Determines the best path to destination and

    b) Share path information (‘the Route’) to other router

  • Routing Table: Router keeps track of known network, path and cost for sending data packets in its routing table. Next time it will determine the best path based on cost associated to send data.

  • Static Routing: a type of routing in which the network administrator manually configure a route into the router’s routing table.

  • Dynamic Routing: internetwork routing that adjusts automatically to network topology or traffic changes based on information it receives from other routers.

 

Routing Facts

  • Routers can forward packets through an internetwork by maintaining routing information in a database called a routing table.

  • The routing table typically contains the address of all known networks and routing information about that network such as:

    • Interface

    • Routing Path

    • Next Hop

    • Route Metric (Cost)

    • Route Timeout

  • Routers build and maintain their routing database by periodically sharing information with other routers.

  • The exact format of these exchanges is based on the routing protocol.

  • The routing protocol determines:

  • The information contained in the routing table

  • How messages are routed from one network to another

  • How topology changes (i.e. updates to the routing table) are communicated between routers

  • Regardless of the method used, changes in routing information take some time to be propagated to all routers on the network.

  • The term convergence is used to describe the condition when all routers have the same (or correct) routing information.

 

Some of CISCO Router recommended Product series


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