CCNA

1. Cisco Network Support Certifications 2. Networking Terms 3. INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING 4. TYPES OF NETWORK 5. The Development of the Internet 6. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE 7. TOPOLOGY 8. BUS TOPOLOGY 9. RING TOPOLOGY 10. STAR TOPOLOGY 11. MESH TOPOLOGY 12. HYBRID TOPOLOGY 13. Speed of Networking device 14. NETWORK DEVICES 15. Exploring Wireless Network 16. REPEATERS 17. HUB 18. SWITCH 19. BRIDGE 20. ROUTERS 21. TRANSMISSION Telecommunication 22. Difference between Full Duplex, Half Duplex and Simplex 23. IP-ADDRESSING and IPV4 24. IPv4 address classes 25. IPV6 [ Internet Protocol Version 6 ] 26. SPEED OF VARIOUS DEVICES 27. Network Security 28. Some basic suggestion and steps to prevent Attacks and Network security 29. OSI model 30. UPPER and LOWER Layer 31. Application Layer (Layer 7) 32. Presentation Layer (Layer 6) 33. Session Layer (Layer 5) 34. Transport Layer (Layer 4) 35. Network Layer (Layer 3) 36. Data Link Layer 2 37. Physical Layer 1 38. TCP/IP The DoD Model 39. ROUTED PROTOCOL 40. Ports and Application 41. Important Application, Protocol and Port Number 42. Router Function 43. Types of Routing Protocols 44. STARTING ROUTER 45. CISCO IOS 46. Logging in to the Router 47. CISCO Router IOS commands List 48. Setting time and date of router 49. Router configuration commands 50. Optimizing Switch and Router 51. Understanding Router Terms 52. ROUTER SECURITY 53. Configuring CISCO SWITCH Security Policy 54. IMPLEMENTING STATIC ROUTING 55. UNDERSTANDING THE NEED FOR NAT 56. WAN Connections 57. Access List [ACL] 58. VLAN [Virtual Local Area Network] 59. SPANNING TREE :- BROADCAST STORM 60. Lab 1 Setting up a Serial Interface 61. Lab 2 : IP Addressing 62. Lab 3 Static Routes 63. Lab 4 Default Routes 64. Lab 5 RIP Routes 65. Lab 6 IGRP Routes 66. Lab 7 EIGRP Routes 67. Lab 8 OSPF Routes 68. Lab 9 CHAP and RIP 69. Lab 10 Standard Access-Lists with RIP 70. Lab 11 Extended Access-Lists with RIP 71. Lab 12 Static NAT 72. Lab 13 Many to One NAT 73. Lab 14 NAT Pool 74. Lab 15 ( 2950 Trunk ) 75. Lab 16 ( 2950 Trunk Dynamic ) 76. Lab 17 (2950 VLANs) 77. Lab 18 ( 2950 Deleting VLANs ) 78. Lab 19 ( 2950 VTP ) 79. Lab 20 ( 2950 VTP w/ client ) 80. Lab 21 ( 2950 Telnet )
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IPV6 [ Internet Protocol Version 6 ] tutorials

  • The problem with IPV4 was that it had reached potential exhaustion of IP address. Now a day 32 bits was not sufficient for an addressing structure.

  • IPV6 offers much larger address structure so that all organization could easily use unique grouping network of IP address.

  • IPV6 address is made up of 8 Groups of 4 HEX Characters (128 bits)

  • Approximately 2128 numbers of addresses can be assigned i.e. roughly goes to 3.4*1038. i.e. 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456. Too large number to compare.

  • By above IPV6 implementation the scarcity of IP address will defiantly solve.

  • The IPV6 128 bit address is divided at 16 bit boundaries, and each 16 bit block is converted to a 4 digit hexadecimal number (0 to 9 and A to F).

  • IPv6 prefixes are expressed in the same way as IPv4 notation or Slash Notation for example 21bd:94:://64 is the subnet on which the address 21bcd:94::12ab:23bd:43dc:8c01 is located. In this example the first 64 bits are the NETWORK ADDRESS or NETWORK ID and rest 64 bits are for HOST ID.

  • Colons “:” are used as separators. This representation is called colon-hexadecimal.

  • Consider following IPv6 address

  • 22ad:0054:0000:0000:05bd:004f:bc38:8d20

    • Rule 1) Removing the leading zeros within each 16 bit block, however each block must

    have at least a single digit.

    22ad:54:0:0:5bd:4f:bc38:8d20

    • Rule 2) Removing contiguous sequence of zeros can be compressed to ::

    So previous address can be represented as

    22ad:54::5bd:4f:bc38:8d20

 

IPv6 ADDRESS TYPES

1) UNICAST :- Packets addressed to a unicast address are delivered to a single interface. RFC 2373 allows multiple interfaces to use the same address, provided that these interfaces appear as a single interface to the IPv6 implementation on the host. This kind of arrangement where multiple interfaces hold one address is used for LOAD BALANCING.

2) MULTICAST :- identifies multiple interfaces. Packets addressed to a multicast address are delivered to all interfaces that are identified by the address.

3) ANYCAST :- Identifies multiple interfaces. Packets addressed to an anycast address are delivered to the nearest interface identified by the address. The nearest interface is the closest in term of routing distance, or number of hops. An anycast address is used for one-to-one-of many communication with delivery to a single interface. It finds the nearest based on Router Cost.

 

IPv6 UNICAST ADDRESSES:-

IPv6 supports the following types of UNICAST Address

  • GLOBAL

  • LINK-LOCAL

  • SITE-LOCAL

 

1) GLOBAL IPv6 UNICAST ADDRESSES:-

  • Used for Internet (V2)

  • The first three bits (Higher Level) are always 001

  • The next 13 bits known as TLA (Top Level Aggregator) are allocated by IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority). IANA allocates the TLA to Local Internet Registries that in turn allocate individual TLAs to Large Internet Service Provider (ISP)

  • Next 8 bits are reserved for future expansion

  • Next 24 bits of the address contain the NLA (Next Level Aggregator). This identifies a specific customer site. The NLA enable an ISP to create multiple levels of addressing hierarchy within a network.

  • The next 16 bits contain SLA (Site Level Aggregator) which is used to organize addressing and routing for downstream ISP and to identify sites or subnets within a site.

  • The next 64 bits identify interface within subnet. This is the 64 bits Extended Unique Identifier (EUI-64) address. This EUI-64 address are assigned directly to network adaptor (NIC) cards or derived from the 48 bits MAC address of the network card.

  • Following is summarized format of IPv6 128 bits

 

3 bits

13 bits

8 bits

24 bits

16 bits

64 bits

001

TLA ID

Reserved

NLA ID

SLA ID

NIC Interface ID

 

2) LINK LOCAL IPv6 UNICAST ADDRESS

  • This is similar to IPv4 address that is auto-configured through APIPA.

  • In IPv4 APIPA assigned address from 169.254.0.0/16

  • In IPv6 you can identify Link-Local address by an FP of 1111 1110 10 which is followed by 54 zeros.

  • It always begins with FE80+54 bits 0 + 64 bits assigned to NIC card

  • Nodes use link-local address when communicating with neighboring nodes.

  • You have 64 bits for NETWORK i.e. 18,446,744,073,709,551,616 Networks

  • You have 64 bits for HOST i.e. again 18,446,744,073,709,551,616 Hosts

  • A link local address is required for ND (Neighbor Discovery) and is always automatically configured, even if no other unicast address is allocated.

  • To check Link-local go to RUN – CMD – ipconfig /all

 

3) SITE LOCAL IPv6 UNICAST ADDRESS

  • Site-Local IPv6 addresses are equivalent to the IPv4 Private address.

  • For IPv4 we have (10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12, 192.168.0.0/16)

  • Private Intranets that do not have a direct, Routed connection to the IPv6 section of the Internet can use SITE-LOCAL address without conflicting with aggregatable Global unicast address.

  • Site-Local Addresses begin with FEC0, followed by 32 zeros and then by a 16 bit subnet identifier that you can use to create subnets within your organization

 

Practice following command

1) Manually set IPv6 property of NIC card and assign IPv6 and DNS manually or

2) NETSH INTERFACE IPV6 SET ADDRESS “local area connection 1” f3c0:0:0:fffe::2

NETSH INTERFACE IPV6 ADD DNDSERVER “local area connection 1” fec0:0:0:fffe::1

NETSH INTERFACE IPV6 SHOW NEIGHBORS

NETSH INTERFACE IPV6 DELETE NEIGHBORS {flushes the cache}

3) on IPv4 to run – cmd – ping 127.0.0.1 is same as on IPv6 run – cmd – ping ::1

4) you can also ping other such as run – cmd – ping fec0:0:0:fffe::1

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