1. Cisco Network Support Certifications 2. Networking Terms 3. INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING 4. TYPES OF NETWORK 5. The Development of the Internet 6. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE 7. TOPOLOGY 8. BUS TOPOLOGY 9. RING TOPOLOGY 10. STAR TOPOLOGY 11. MESH TOPOLOGY 12. HYBRID TOPOLOGY 13. Speed of Networking device 14. NETWORK DEVICES 15. Exploring Wireless Network 16. REPEATERS 17. HUB 18. SWITCH 19. BRIDGE 20. ROUTERS 21. TRANSMISSION Telecommunication 22. Difference between Full Duplex, Half Duplex and Simplex 23. IP-ADDRESSING and IPV4 24. IPv4 address classes 25. IPV6 [ Internet Protocol Version 6 ] 26. SPEED OF VARIOUS DEVICES 27. Network Security 28. Some basic suggestion and steps to prevent Attacks and Network security 29. OSI model 30. UPPER and LOWER Layer 31. Application Layer (Layer 7) 32. Presentation Layer (Layer 6) 33. Session Layer (Layer 5) 34. Transport Layer (Layer 4) 35. Network Layer (Layer 3) 36. Data Link Layer 2 37. Physical Layer 1 38. TCP/IP The DoD Model 39. ROUTED PROTOCOL 40. Ports and Application 41. Important Application, Protocol and Port Number 42. Router Function 43. Types of Routing Protocols 44. STARTING ROUTER 45. CISCO IOS 46. Logging in to the Router 47. CISCO Router IOS commands List 48. Setting time and date of router 49. Router configuration commands 50. Optimizing Switch and Router 51. Understanding Router Terms 52. ROUTER SECURITY 53. Configuring CISCO SWITCH Security Policy 54. IMPLEMENTING STATIC ROUTING 55. UNDERSTANDING THE NEED FOR NAT 56. WAN Connections 57. Access List [ACL] 58. VLAN [Virtual Local Area Network] 59. SPANNING TREE :- BROADCAST STORM 60. Lab 1 Setting up a Serial Interface 61. Lab 2 : IP Addressing 62. Lab 3 Static Routes 63. Lab 4 Default Routes 64. Lab 5 RIP Routes 65. Lab 6 IGRP Routes 66. Lab 7 EIGRP Routes 67. Lab 8 OSPF Routes 68. Lab 9 CHAP and RIP 69. Lab 10 Standard Access-Lists with RIP 70. Lab 11 Extended Access-Lists with RIP 71. Lab 12 Static NAT 72. Lab 13 Many to One NAT 73. Lab 14 NAT Pool 74. Lab 15 ( 2950 Trunk ) 75. Lab 16 ( 2950 Trunk Dynamic ) 76. Lab 17 (2950 VLANs) 77. Lab 18 ( 2950 Deleting VLANs ) 78. Lab 19 ( 2950 VTP ) 79. Lab 20 ( 2950 VTP w/ client ) 80. Lab 21 ( 2950 Telnet )
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Types of Routing Protocols tutorials


  • Routers using distance vector-based routing share routing table information with each other. This method of updating is called “routing by rumor”. Each router receives update from its direct neighbor.

  • Easy to configure and setup

  • Not many features. If there is any problem it takes time in resolving problem

  • RIP v1 (Router [Routing] Information Protocol Version 1)

  • RIP v2 (Router [Routing] Information Protocol Version 2)

  • IGRP (Internet Gateway Routing Protocol)



  • Difficult to configure i.e. more knowledge is required

  • Feature. Support most

  • OSPF (Open Shorted Path First)

  • IS-IS


3) HYBRID (also called as Advance Distance Vector)

  • The best of above both

  • It is proprietary protocol developed by CISCO. You need CISCO routers everywhere to run this protocol

  • EIGRP Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol



  • Algorithm for RIP was first developed in year 1969.

  • It is routing protocol that sends its complete routing table to active interfaces every 30 second.

  • It uses hop counts to determine best path to remote network.

  • The maximum allowable hop count is 15. (Hop count is number of routers the packet can travel to reach destination)

  • RIP version 1 is classful protocol, that means that it does not send subnet mask in routing table. We cannot use Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM).

  • It means that all devices in network to use RIP version 1 must use the same subnet mask.

  • It uses Broadcast every 30 second, which add network traffic every 30 second.

  • There is no Authentication. That is router cannot have password for authentication.

  • RIP works well in small networks, but it is inefficient on large networks with slow WAN links or on networks with a large number of routers installed.


RIP version 2

  • It is classless protocol, that means it send subnet mask and can be used with Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM).

  • Uses Multicast, only RIP router will receive routing table info

  • It add authentication, so when router start communicating it add password

  • The maximum allowable hop count is 15. (Hop count is number of routers the packet can travel to reach destination)

  • CISCO suggest you use RIP v2 because it can be used with VLSM

  • IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) is a Cisco proprietary distance vector routing protocol. This means that to use IGRP in your network, all your router must be Cisco Routers. IGRP has maximum hop count of 255 with default being 100. this is helpful in larger network and solve the problem of 15 hop of RIP network. It gives full route table update every 90 seconds.


IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)

  • IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) is Cisco proprietary distance-vector routing protocol.

  • It means that all your routers must be Cisco routers to use IGRP in your network.

  • Cisco created this routing protocol to overcome the problems associated with RIP.

  • RIP allows maximum hop count of 15 whereas IGRP has a maximum hop count of 255 with a default of 100.

  • This is helpful in larger networks and solves the problem of there being only 15 hops maximum possible in a RIP network.

  • IGRP also uses a different metric from RIP.

  • IGRP uses bandwidth and delay of the line by default as a metric for determining the best route to an internetwork. This is called a composite metric.


OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)

  • (Open Shortest Path First) protocol based on link state. OSPF uses Dijkstra’s shortest path first (SPF) algorithm to determine the best path to each network.

  • OSPF was developed in 1980 to answer the RIP’s inability to scale well in large IP network. OSPF is classless that means we can use it VLSM (Variable Length Subnet Mask).

  • It uses cost as matrix. Cost depends upon HOPS, BANDWIDTH, DELAY, RELIABILITY etc.

  • when a router is configured with OSPF, the first thing router does is create a topology table of network. OSPF does this by sending hellos out to each OSPF interface.

  • While listening for Hellos from other routers, if routers share a common data link and agree on certain parameters, they become neighbors. And share routing table database.

  • When all databases from neighbor router is collected, each router uses the SPF algorithm to calculate a loop-free, best path topology and build its routing table based on this topology.


EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)

  • EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) is enhanced version of CISCO IGRP Distance Vector.

  • EIGRP use robust 32-bit composite metric, i.e.EIGRP uses bandwidth and delay (each multiplied by 255 to make them 32-bit) as its default metrics to determine the best routing path to a destination.

  • In addition, you can configure EIGRP to include additional metrics such as reliability, load, and MTU.

  • Maximum hop count of EIGRP is 244 as compared to RIP 1 and RIP2 of 15 hops.

  • EIGRP is a true hybrid routing protocol, it has taken some of the best features of linkstate routing protocols too. For example, EIGRP discovers its neighbors and builds a topology table by sending hello messages as a multicast to the reserved multicast address of

  • After the neighbors are discovered, they synchronize their topology databases and send hello messages afterwards to keep their dead timers from expiring.

  • EIGRP also can route not only IP, but also IPX and AppleTalk routed protocols in your network if you have an older Novell or Macintosh environment.


Routed Protocol

  • Once all routers know about all networks, a routed protocol can be used to send user data (packets) through the established enterprise. Routed protocols are assigned to an interface and determine the method of packet delivery. For ex.

  • IP (Internet Protocol)

  • IPX (Internetwork Packet eXchange) for Novell Network.

  • DECnet (Digital Equipment Corporation network)&

  • AppleTalk Apple Talk is used by Apple (Mac) network


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