CCNA

1. Cisco Network Support Certifications 2. Networking Terms 3. INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING 4. TYPES OF NETWORK 5. The Development of the Internet 6. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE 7. TOPOLOGY 8. BUS TOPOLOGY 9. RING TOPOLOGY 10. STAR TOPOLOGY 11. MESH TOPOLOGY 12. HYBRID TOPOLOGY 13. Speed of Networking device 14. NETWORK DEVICES 15. Exploring Wireless Network 16. REPEATERS 17. HUB 18. SWITCH 19. BRIDGE 20. ROUTERS 21. TRANSMISSION Telecommunication 22. Difference between Full Duplex, Half Duplex and Simplex 23. IP-ADDRESSING and IPV4 24. IPv4 address classes 25. IPV6 [ Internet Protocol Version 6 ] 26. SPEED OF VARIOUS DEVICES 27. Network Security 28. Some basic suggestion and steps to prevent Attacks and Network security 29. OSI model 30. UPPER and LOWER Layer 31. Application Layer (Layer 7) 32. Presentation Layer (Layer 6) 33. Session Layer (Layer 5) 34. Transport Layer (Layer 4) 35. Network Layer (Layer 3) 36. Data Link Layer 2 37. Physical Layer 1 38. TCP/IP The DoD Model 39. ROUTED PROTOCOL 40. Ports and Application 41. Important Application, Protocol and Port Number 42. Router Function 43. Types of Routing Protocols 44. STARTING ROUTER 45. CISCO IOS 46. Logging in to the Router 47. CISCO Router IOS commands List 48. Setting time and date of router 49. Router configuration commands 50. Optimizing Switch and Router 51. Understanding Router Terms 52. ROUTER SECURITY 53. Configuring CISCO SWITCH Security Policy 54. IMPLEMENTING STATIC ROUTING 55. UNDERSTANDING THE NEED FOR NAT 56. WAN Connections 57. Access List [ACL] 58. VLAN [Virtual Local Area Network] 59. SPANNING TREE :- BROADCAST STORM 60. Lab 1 Setting up a Serial Interface 61. Lab 2 : IP Addressing 62. Lab 3 Static Routes 63. Lab 4 Default Routes 64. Lab 5 RIP Routes 65. Lab 6 IGRP Routes 66. Lab 7 EIGRP Routes 67. Lab 8 OSPF Routes 68. Lab 9 CHAP and RIP 69. Lab 10 Standard Access-Lists with RIP 70. Lab 11 Extended Access-Lists with RIP 71. Lab 12 Static NAT 72. Lab 13 Many to One NAT 73. Lab 14 NAT Pool 74. Lab 15 ( 2950 Trunk ) 75. Lab 16 ( 2950 Trunk Dynamic ) 76. Lab 17 (2950 VLANs) 77. Lab 18 ( 2950 Deleting VLANs ) 78. Lab 19 ( 2950 VTP ) 79. Lab 20 ( 2950 VTP w/ client ) 80. Lab 21 ( 2950 Telnet )
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Understanding Router Terms tutorials

  • When you apply show interface it provide some screen as follows. Following are some of the important terms.

  • Router#show interfaces FastEthernet 0/0

  • FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up

  • Hardware is Re184, address is 002b.3f77.f11a ()

  • Internet address is 192.160.0.1/16

  • MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec,

  • reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255

  • Encapsulation ARPA, loopback not set

  • Keepalive not set

  • Full-duplex, 100Mb/s, 100BaseTX/FX

  • ARP type: ARPA, ARP Timeout 04:00:00

  • Last input 00:00:10, output 00:00:10, output hang never

  • Last clearing of “show interface” counters never

  • Input queue: 0/75/0/0 (size/max/drops/flushes); Total output drops: 0

  • Queueing strategy: fifo

  • Output queue: 0/40 (size/max)

    5 minute input rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec

    5 minute output rate 0 bits/sec, 0 packets/sec

    322 packets input, 70336 bytes

    Received 322 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants, 0 throttles

    0 input errors, 0 CRC, 0 frame, 0 overrun, 0 ignored

    0 watchdog

    0 input packets with dribble condition detected

    343 packets output, 72188 bytes, 0 underruns

    0 output errors, 0 collisions, 3 interface resets

    0 babbles, 0 late collision, 0 deferred

    0 lost carrier, 0 no carrier

    0 output buffer failures, 0 output buffers swapped out

 

Router Status

Description

Interface Status Value

Layer 1

Line Protocol

What it mean

UP

UP

Interface is functional and all ok.

UP

Down

Encapsulation mismatch. It means the clocking on serial interface is not set or framing issue. Check the keepalives on both ends to make sure they matchl the clock rate is set, is need and the encapsulation type is the same on both end.

Down

Down

Cable is disconnected or attached to shutdown interface on the far end device. You need to turn on interface, by giving no shutdown command manually.

Administratively Down

Down

Means port is shut down by admin. You need to apply no shutdown command manually.

Hardware is Re184, address is 000B.876A.EEAB

This will show you 48 bits MAC address of Ethernet interface.

Internet address is 192.160.0.1/16

This will show you Assigned IP Address to Ethernet interface.

MTU 1500 bytes, BW 100000 Kbit, DLY 100 usec,

Maximum Transmission Unit

MTU which is 1500 bytes by default.

It also shows the default bandwidth (BW) on all Cisco serial links: 1.544Kbs.

This is used to determine the bandwidth of the line for routing protocols such as IGRP, EIGRP, and OSPF.

 

reliability 255/255,

255/255 means on the counter of 1/100, 1 = 0% and 255 = 100%

txload 1/255,

Transmission Load, i.e. how much are you sending (Transmitting)

rxLoad 1/255

Receiving Load i.e. how much are you receiving.

Encapsulation ARPA

Layer 2 frame encapsulation on interface

Half-duplex, 100Mb/s, 100BaseTX/FX

Duplex and speed of interface

5 minute summery of packets sending / Receiving / Broadcast

Summery of Router for 5 minute

Runts / giants / throttles / crc / overrun / ignored

all are bad errors.

 

Received 0 broadcasts, 0 runts, 0 giants

The number of broadcasts, runts (below minimum frame size), and giants (above maximum frame size).

0 collisions

Happens when collision happens while sending/receiving packets.

Late collision

Happens when your cable is too long. When packets are sent over long cable, it may take more time before reaching and source will resend those packets as it don’t receive ack within time. In mean time it receives the ACK for first packets sent. This is late collision.

 


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