C++ Programming

1. Computer Programming 2. History of Prog.Language 3. Introduction to C++ 4. OOPS 5. Features of C++ 6. Starting Turbo C++ 7. C++ Tokens 8. Basic requirment of C++ 9. Comments 10. My First Program in C++ 11. Line Break 12. C++ Escape Sequence 13. Constants or Literals 14. Variable in C++ 15. Data Types in C++ 16. Range of data types in C++ 17. Declare Variables 18. Reserved Key Words 19. cout<< 20. Chained & Embedded state 21. Prog.to print sum of 2 nos 22. cin>> 23. Prg.to print sum & average 24. Area & Perimeter of Rectangle 25. Area Circumference of Circle 26. Prg.for Simple Calculator 27. Operatos in C++ 28. Ex. Of Operators 29. Swap two numbers 30. Hierarchy of Operators 31. if( ) statement 32. Prg.to check +ve,-ve or zero 33. if..else statement 34. Prg.to check Odd or Even 35. Prg.to print larger of 2 nos 36. Prg.to print largest of 3 nos 37. Prg.to check divisibility 38. Prg.to check print range 39. for. . . loop statement 40. prg.to print series of nos 41. Prg.to check divisibility 42. prg.to print sum of series 43. Prg.to print Pyramid 44. prg.for Factorial 45. prg.to fill screen 46. prg.for largest/smallest no 47. prg.to print reverse no 48. prg.to add each digit 49. prg.for sum of factorial 50. prg.for fibonacci series 51. prg.to check Prime nos 52. prg. Prime no from 1 to 100 53. prg.Specified Prime nos 54. while( ) statement 55. do. . While statement 56. goto statement 57. break & continue statement 58. switch case statement 59. Array in C++ 60. print reverse order using array 61. Ascending/Descending order 62. prg.to search no in Array 63. Double Dimension Array 64. String in C++ 65. String with spaces in C++ 66. prg.to print string in reverse 67. prg.to count A,E,I,O,U vowel 68. Function( ) in C++ 69. Function program examples 70. General Purpose Programs 71. Loan & EMI calculation prg. 72. Table print prg. 73. Leap year program 74. lower to UPPER case prg. 75. Age Distribution prg. 76. Bank note calculation prg. 77. Simple Interest prg. 78. Compound Interest prg. 79. Simple Depreciation prg. 80. Reducing bal.Depreciation prg. 81. Marksheet prg. 82. Income Tax prg. 83. Time calculator prg. 84. Distance converter prg. 85. Volume Air Calculation prg. 86. Time to fill Water Tank prg. 87. Salary Calculation prg. 88. Total Sale Calculation prg. 89. Male/Female percentage prg. 90. Library Rent prg. 91. Office Expence prg. 92. Total Salary Calculation prg. 93. Profit or Loss prg. 94. Total Profit/Loss prg. 95. Convert Amt to Word. 96. ASCII Table 97. C++ Operators 98. C & C++ Reserved Keyword 99. C & C++ Pre-Define Function 100. C++ Interview Part1 101. C++ Interview Part2 102. C++ Interview Part3 103. C++ Interview Part4 104. C++ Interview Part5 105. C++ Interview Part6 106. C++ Interview Part7 107. C++ Interview Part8 108. C++ Interview Part9 109. C++ Interview Part10 110. C++ Interview Part11 111. C++ Interview Part11
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C++ Interview Questions and Answers Part 9


81.What is class invariant?>

  • A class invariant is a condition that defines all valid states for an object. It is a logical condition to ensure the correct working of a class.

  • Class invariants must hold when an object is created, and they must be preserved under all operations of the class.

  • In particular all class invariants are both preconditions and post-conditions for all operations or member functions of the class.


82.What do you mean by Stack unwinding?

  • It is a process during exception handling when the destructor is called for all local objects between the place where the exception was thrown and where it is caught.


83. What are the conditions that have to be met for a condition to be an invariant of the class ?

1. The condition should hold at the end of every constructor.
2. The condition should hold at the end of every mutator (non-const) operation.


84.Name some pure object oriented languages.

  • Smalltalk, Java, Eiffel, Sather


85.What is an orthogonal base class?

  • If two base classes have no overlapping methods or data they are said to be independent of, or orthogonal to each other.

  • Orthogonal in the sense means that two classes operate in different dimensions and do not interfere with each other in any way.

  • The same derived class may inherit such classes with no difficulty.


86.What is a node class?

  • A node class is a class that:
    Relies on the base class for services and implementation,
    Provides a wider interface to the users than its base class,
    Relies primarily on virtual functions in its public interface,
    Depends on all its direct and indirect base class,
    Can be understood only in the context of the base class,
    Can be used as base for further derivation,
    Can be used to create objects.

  • A node class is a class that has added new services or functionality beyond the services inherited from its base class.


87.What is polymorphism?

  • Polymorphism is the idea that a base class can be inherited by several classes.

  • A base class pointer can point to its child class and a base class array can store different child class objects.


122.What are different types of Arrays in C++?

  • In C++ Arrays are of three types that is Single Dimensional, Double Dimensional or Mutli-dimensional.


89.How can you tell what shell you are running on UNIX system?

  • You can do the Echo $RANDOM.

  • It will return a undefined variable if you are from the C-Shell, just a return prompt if you are from the Bourne shell, and a 5 digit random numbers if you are from the Korn shell.

  • You could also do a ps -l and look for the shell with the highest PID


90.What is pure virtual function?

  • A class is made abstract by declaring one or more of its virtual functions to be pure.

  • A pure virtual function is one with an initializer of = 0 in its declaration 

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