C++ Programming

1. Computer Programming 2. History of Prog.Language 3. Introduction to C++ 4. OOPS 5. Features of C++ 6. Starting Turbo C++ 7. C++ Tokens 8. Basic requirment of C++ 9. Comments 10. My First Program in C++ 11. Line Break 12. C++ Escape Sequence 13. Constants or Literals 14. Variable in C++ 15. Data Types in C++ 16. Range of data types in C++ 17. Declare Variables 18. Reserved Key Words 19. cout<< 20. Chained & Embedded state 21. Prog.to print sum of 2 nos 22. cin>> 23. Prg.to print sum & average 24. Area & Perimeter of Rectangle 25. Area Circumference of Circle 26. Prg.for Simple Calculator 27. Operatos in C++ 28. Ex. Of Operators 29. Swap two numbers 30. Hierarchy of Operators 31. if( ) statement 32. Prg.to check +ve,-ve or zero 33. if..else statement 34. Prg.to check Odd or Even 35. Prg.to print larger of 2 nos 36. Prg.to print largest of 3 nos 37. Prg.to check divisibility 38. Prg.to check print range 39. for. . . loop statement 40. prg.to print series of nos 41. Prg.to check divisibility 42. prg.to print sum of series 43. Prg.to print Pyramid 44. prg.for Factorial 45. prg.to fill screen 46. prg.for largest/smallest no 47. prg.to print reverse no 48. prg.to add each digit 49. prg.for sum of factorial 50. prg.for fibonacci series 51. prg.to check Prime nos 52. prg. Prime no from 1 to 100 53. prg.Specified Prime nos 54. while( ) statement 55. do. . While statement 56. goto statement 57. break & continue statement 58. switch case statement 59. Array in C++ 60. print reverse order using array 61. Ascending/Descending order 62. prg.to search no in Array 63. Double Dimension Array 64. String in C++ 65. String with spaces in C++ 66. prg.to print string in reverse 67. prg.to count A,E,I,O,U vowel 68. Function( ) in C++ 69. Function program examples 70. General Purpose Programs 71. Loan & EMI calculation prg. 72. Table print prg. 73. Leap year program 74. lower to UPPER case prg. 75. Age Distribution prg. 76. Bank note calculation prg. 77. Simple Interest prg. 78. Compound Interest prg. 79. Simple Depreciation prg. 80. Reducing bal.Depreciation prg. 81. Marksheet prg. 82. Income Tax prg. 83. Time calculator prg. 84. Distance converter prg. 85. Volume Air Calculation prg. 86. Time to fill Water Tank prg. 87. Salary Calculation prg. 88. Total Sale Calculation prg. 89. Male/Female percentage prg. 90. Library Rent prg. 91. Office Expence prg. 92. Total Salary Calculation prg. 93. Profit or Loss prg. 94. Total Profit/Loss prg. 95. Convert Amt to Word. 96. ASCII Table 97. C++ Operators 98. C & C++ Reserved Keyword 99. C & C++ Pre-Define Function 100. C++ Interview Part1 101. C++ Interview Part2 102. C++ Interview Part3 103. C++ Interview Part4 104. C++ Interview Part5 105. C++ Interview Part6 106. C++ Interview Part7 107. C++ Interview Part8 108. C++ Interview Part9 109. C++ Interview Part10 110. C++ Interview Part11 111. C++ Interview Part11
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Operators tutorials

  • The variables, which are declared and defined, are the operands which are operated upon by the operators.

  • Operators specify what operations are to be performed on the operands.

  • Some operators require two operands, while few operators require only one operand.

  • C++ includes many operators, which fall into different categories as follows.

    1. ARITHMETIC OPERATORS

    2. UNARY OPERATORS

    3. RELATIONAL AND LOGICAL OPERATORS

    4. ASSIGNMENT OPERATORS

    5. CONDITIONAL OPERATORS

 

1) ARITHMETIC OPERATORS

There are 5 arithmetic operators in C++.

Operator     Used for

+           Addition

-            Subtraction

*           Multiplication

/           Division

%         Modulus (Remainder after integer division)

 

Note:- There is no exponentiation operator in C++. However you can use library function pow() to carry out exponentiation. pow() function will require <math.h> library file.


 

2) Unary Operators

  • As operators work on single operands, they are called unary operators.

  • Most common unary operator is unary minus, where a minus sign precedes a numeric variable or expression.

  • Unary minus operator is different from arithmetic minus (Subtraction). Arithmetic subtraction or minus operator requires two operands.

 

For Example:

-150

- ( a + b )

- 4 * ( 2 + 3 )

 

Other Unary Operator

  • a) Increment operator ++. The increment operator ++adds 1 to operand.

  • b) Decrement operator - -. The decrement operator -- subtracts 1 to operand.

  • Both Increment and Decrement operator can be used in two different ways.

    1. Pre :- If unary operator precedes the operand for example (++ operand or - - operand), then value of operand will be increased / decreased by one, before it is utilized within program.

    2. Post:- If unary operator follows the operand for example (operand++ or operand- - ), then value of operand will be increased / decreased by one, after the execution of statement within program.

 

3) Relational and Logical Operator

  • Relational operators are used for comparison and checking.

  • These are called relational or conditional or logical or Boolean operators.

  • Result is Boolean and it operates on all simple types of operand such as int, float or char.

  • These operators are used to check condition or control statements.

 

Operator

Meaning

Less than

Greater than

= =

Equal to

< =

Less than or Equal to

> =

Greater than or Equal to

! =

Not equal to

 

4) Assingment operator

  • Simple assignment operators: The equal (=) sign is used for assigning a value to variable. The left-hand side has to be a variable and right-hand side of equal sign has to be value of variable.

 

For Example:

a = 5; // this statement will assign 5 to variable a.

b = 2 + 10; // this statement will solve right hand side equation and assign 12 to b.

x = y = z = 20; // this this example of multiple assignment, it will assign 20 to x, y and z.

 

  • Shorthand assignment operator: The plus equal (+=), minus equal (-=), multiply equal (*=), divide equal (/=), modulo equal (%=), the use of shorthand assignment operator and advantages below:

  • What appears on the left-hand side need not be repeated and therefore it becomes easier to write. The statement is more concise and easier to read.

 

You can also use shorthand assignment operator as follow.

Assume A = 5 and B=2 then check following.

Operator

Regular Expression

Shorthand assignment,

Expression can be written as

Result of A

+ =

A = A + B ;

A += B;

7

- =

A = A B ;

A - = B;

3

* =

A = A * B ;

A * = B;

10

/ =

A = A / B ;

A / = B;

2

% =

A = A % B ;

A % = B;

1

 

5) Logical Operators

  • The logical operator && logcal AND, || meaning OR, !meaning NOT.

  • The logical operator && and || are used when we want to test more than one condition and makes decisions.

  • When result of both operands are true (T), && (AND) operators gives true result, otherwise it gives false.

  • When result of any operands is true (T), || (OR) operators gives true result, otherwise it gives false.

  • ( ! ) NOT operators reverse Boolean result.

  • Truth table for each logical operators are below:

 

Result of A

Condition

Result of B Condition

AND condition

A && B

OR condition

A || B

Not Condition

! A

T

T

T

T

F

T

F

F

T

F

F

T

F

T

T

F

F

F

F

T

 

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