Windows Server 2008

1. WINDOWS SERVER 2008 2. WINDOWS 2008 Editions 3. WINDOWS 2008 Server Core 4. APPROX. COST OF WINDOWS SERVER 2008 5. Upgrade / Migrate 6. Upgrade from previous OS 7. WINDOWS SERVER 2008 INSTALLATION 8. Windows Server 2008 Activation 9. Activation Method 10. RAID 11. BACKUP and RECOVERY 12. Wbadmin 13. BACKUP Utility 14. Windows Recovery Environment 15. Server Roles for WINDOWS SERVER 2008 16. IP-ADDRESSING and IPV4 17. IPV6 18. Remote Desktop Connection 19. Steps for Remote Desktop Pc from Client PC 20. Remote Desktops 21. MANAGING SERVER CORE 22. TERMINAL SERVICES (TS) 23. TERMINAL SERVICES MANAGER 24. MANGAING FILE AND PRINT SERVERS 25. Share Folder 26. Attrib (Attribute) 27. Windows Registry 28. Disk Quotas 29. Disaster Recovery Tools 30. MMC 31. Remote Assistance 32. Signed & Unsigned Driver 33. Hardware Profile 34. CHKDSK.EXE(Check Disk) 35. Disk Defragmenter (DFRG.MSC) 36. ACTIVE DIRECTORY REVIEW 37. Introduction to AD 38. TRUST 39. FSMO 40. GC (GLOBAL CATALOG) Server 41. Site 42. AD replication 43. Backup of Active Directory (DC) 44. Understanding USER, GROUP & COMPUTER 45. Create Local User & Multiple Users 46. GROUP SCOPE 47. Public and Private key encryption 48. Trust concept of CA working 49. ETHERNET CARDS 50. Availability and Security 51. General Server Security Issues 52. OSI MODEL 53. Data Encapsulation 54. TCP/IP or DoD Model 55. Protocol Working at Host to Host (Transport) layer 56. NETWORK MONITOR 57. Internet Information Services 58. Monitoring Tools 59. DNS [Domain Name System] 60. DNS ZONE 61. Remote Access Authentication Process 62. Remote Access Interview Question & Answer part 1 Tutorials Interview Question & Answer part 2 Tutorials Interview Question & Answer part 3 Tutorials Interview Question & Answer part 4 Tutorials Interview Question & Answer part 5 Tutorials Interview Question & Answer part 6 Tutorials Interview Question & Answer part 7 Tutorials
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DNS [Domain Name System] tutorials

  • When you install a computer, you assign the computer a name. This name is used as the computer’s NETBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) name and as the computer’s DNS hostname.

  • In Windows NT 4.0 network WINS was used to resolve NETBIOS name. on Windows 2000 and later OS, DNS is used to resolve Name Resolution. i.e. resolve DNS Hostname to IP Address and Vice versa.

  • When the network is not fully configured for DNS name resolution, NETBIOS is required and service called “Computer Browser” is enabled by default in Windows XP and Windows 2003.

 

Item

Problem

Mac Address

it is 6 byte (48 Bits) Hex-Decimal number and is very difficult to remember. For e.g. 00-07-95-51-9E-6F

IP Address (Binary)

It is 32 Bits Binary number containing 1 and 0 and still very difficult to remember. For e.g. 11000000.10101000.00000001.00000001

IP Address (Decimal)

It is 4 numbers separated by dots. Still difficult to remember for e.g. 192.168.1.1

FQDN

It stands for Fully Qualified Domain Name. Relatively easier to remember and commonly used. For e.g. www.google.com, www.cbtsam.com

 

  • Long back when internet was evolved it used to be “Urbannet”. Only one university was responsible for keeping track of host. So there used to be list of computers with its IP address and in each computer there used to be text file named “HOSTS”.

  • Today with millions and millions of computers and hosts it became unmanageable with just single text file. So the concept of DNS was derived.

 

Steps involve to resolve IP address

  • On Client PC, it first check Local DNS cache. i.e. have to gone for that website recently or have you hooked up that IP address recently.

  • Secondly it check “Hosts” txt file. It is in %systemroot%\System32\Driver\etc folder. This file contains the mappings of IP addresses to host names. Each entry should be kept on an individual line. The IP address should be placed in the first column followed by the corresponding host name. The IP address and the host name should be separated by at least one space. Today however this is not used.

  • Next it forward query to DNS server of ISP (Internet Service Providers) , which will be checked in forward lookup zone. Now ISP DNS server check it as follow

  • It checks with internal Local DNS cache

  • It checks with “Hosts” file

  • If that web site is on ISP DNS server (i.e. Authoritative zone), most time no.

  • If it can’t find appropriate record, then it forward query to upstream ISP -DNS, which in turn will do 1,2,3 process again

  • It check with top level [TLDS] Top Level DNS server [called Root Hints] which in turn gives IP address of .com.dns server or .org.dns server and that finally from there we will get IP address of site required.

  • Once our ISP DNS server will get IP address, it transfer you to site you want to surf thereafter.

 

  • You can clear client’s resolve cashe by typing

Start – run – cmd - ipconfig /flushdns

 

  • You can force a client to register its DNS record by typing

  • Start – run – cmd – ipconfig /registerdns

  • DNS client send name resolution queries to DNS server using 2 types of lookups:

  • FORWARD LOOKUP is used to determine IP address of computer from host name (FQDN)

  • REVERSE LOOKUP: Is used to determine Host name (FQDN) from its IP address

 

  • When DNS client receive a query response from DNS server, the response is stored in the local DNS resolver cache. To check it type

  • Start – run – cmd – ipconfig /displaydns

  • This will display number of records along with time to expire. Time to Live will display value that represents Seconds until which the resolver cache entry expires.

 

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