Windows Server 2008

1. WINDOWS SERVER 2008 2. WINDOWS 2008 Editions 3. WINDOWS 2008 Server Core 4. APPROX. COST OF WINDOWS SERVER 2008 5. Upgrade / Migrate 6. Upgrade from previous OS 7. WINDOWS SERVER 2008 INSTALLATION 8. Windows Server 2008 Activation 9. Activation Method 10. RAID 11. BACKUP and RECOVERY 12. Wbadmin 13. BACKUP Utility 14. Windows Recovery Environment 15. Server Roles for WINDOWS SERVER 2008 16. IP-ADDRESSING and IPV4 17. IPV6 18. Remote Desktop Connection 19. Steps for Remote Desktop Pc from Client PC 20. Remote Desktops 21. MANAGING SERVER CORE 22. TERMINAL SERVICES (TS) 23. TERMINAL SERVICES MANAGER 24. MANGAING FILE AND PRINT SERVERS 25. Share Folder 26. Attrib (Attribute) 27. Windows Registry 28. Disk Quotas 29. Disaster Recovery Tools 30. MMC 31. Remote Assistance 32. Signed & Unsigned Driver 33. Hardware Profile 34. CHKDSK.EXE(Check Disk) 35. Disk Defragmenter (DFRG.MSC) 36. ACTIVE DIRECTORY REVIEW 37. Introduction to AD 38. TRUST 39. FSMO 40. GC (GLOBAL CATALOG) Server 41. Site 42. AD replication 43. Backup of Active Directory (DC) 44. Understanding USER, GROUP & COMPUTER 45. Create Local User & Multiple Users 46. GROUP SCOPE 47. Public and Private key encryption 48. Trust concept of CA working 49. ETHERNET CARDS 50. Availability and Security 51. General Server Security Issues 52. OSI MODEL 53. Data Encapsulation 54. TCP/IP or DoD Model 55. Protocol Working at Host to Host (Transport) layer 56. NETWORK MONITOR 57. Internet Information Services 58. Monitoring Tools 59. DNS [Domain Name System] 60. DNS ZONE 61. Remote Access Authentication Process 62. Remote Access Interview Question & Answer part 1 Tutorials Interview Question & Answer part 2 Tutorials Interview Question & Answer part 3 Tutorials Interview Question & Answer part 4 Tutorials Interview Question & Answer part 5 Tutorials Interview Question & Answer part 6 Tutorials Interview Question & Answer part 7 Tutorials
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IP-ADDRESSING and IPV4 tutorials

If a device wants to communicate using TCP/IP, it needs an IP address. When a device has an IP address and appropriate software and hardware, it can send and receive IP packets. Its like Mobile number, along with mobile number you need hardware (Mobile phone) and software (Sim card Software) to receive or make phone call.

NOTE:-Most people think that their computer has an IP address, but actually NIC [Network Interface Card] i.e. LAN card has an IP address.

HOST style='font-size:11.0pt;line-height:115%'> Host mean any device that have IP address. Most of the times it is referred to computer running some services in network. Any device that can send and receive IP packets is called IP Host.



  • IPv4 stands for Internet Protocol Version 4.

  • IP address is a unique address to identify a host on a network.

  • IP address is made up of 32 Bits Binary numbers (Base 2). It is called as Binary notation.

  • Instead of using 32 bits Binary address at a time, 32 Bits Binary number is address in to 4 blocks of 8 Bits, called an octet.

  • Each Octet can be converted to a decimal number (Base 10) ranging from 0 to 255 and separated by a dot. It is called Dotted Decimal number.

  • Approximately 232 numbers of addresses can be assigned to roughly 4 Billions Host.

Binary System

  • In Computer Science and Mathematics, the Binary System represents numeric value using two symbols, 0 and 1 and base-2.

  • Numbers represented by 0 and 1 is commonly called Binary Numbers.

  • In day to day life we use Decimal Numbers, which includes 10 numbers i.e. (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9). Base for Decimal number is 10.



Note - IPV4

  • Most people think that their computer has an IP address, but in-fact NIC [Network Interface Card] or simply LAN card is assigned an IP address.

  • IP address can be assigned to

    1. NIC Card Network Interface Card or simply LAN card.

    2. Router.

    3. Network Storage Device.

    4. Network Printer.

    5. IP Camera.

  • We can assign more than one IP address to one LAN Card.
  • If computer does not have NIC then, we can install MS LOOP BACK adaptor and assign IP address to it. Although NIC is not present, it acts as if there is LAN card.

IPv4 address classes

  • IP addresses are divided into 5 classes ie. A,B,C,D,E

  • Only addresses from class A,B & C are assigned to organization

  • Addresses from class D & E are reserved for special purpose.

  • Address is reserved for loop-back address.

  • If any pc does not have network card then we can install MS LOOP BACK adaptor, and although LAN Card is not present, it act as if there is LAN card.


Range of first byte

Number of network

Host per network

Default subnet mask


1 126

27 2 = 126

224 - 2 i.e. 16,777,214


128 - 191

214 -2 = 16,384

216 2 i.e. 65,534


192 223

221-2= 2,097,150

28 2 i.e. 254


224 - 239

TCP/IP defines Class D for Multicast address


240 255

Reserved for Experiment, Research and Development



  • Private addresses can be used if the network is not directly connected to internet

  • The network can connect to internet using proxy server or fire-wall

  • These addresses are used for internal networks.










IPv4 Address can be assigned by following 3 types

1) Static IP Address (Assigned Manually)

2) Dynamic IP Address

3) APIPA Automatic Private IP Address



Static IP are manually assigned to NIC card by hardware engineer. When you manually assign an IP address, you must manually assign other TCP/IP address options such as subnet mask and default gateway.


Dynamic IP addresses are automatically assigned to computers by DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) server. When a DHCP dynamically assign an IP address, the server also assign subnet mask and default gateway.

3) APIPA Automatic Private IP Address

APIPA are used when a computer is configured for DHCP to assign IP Address, however DHCP server is unavailable for some reason. In this case APIPA will assign IP address in the range from to with the subnet mask of

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