Windows Server 2008

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Protocol Working at Host to Host (Transport) layer tutorials


TCP [Transmission Control Protocol]


UDP [User Datagram Protocol]


TCP takes large blocks of information from an application and breaks them into segment. It numbers and sequences each segment so that the destination TCP can put those segments back into the order. After these segments are sent, it waits for an acknowledgement. It resends anything that is not received.


It is connection oriented


It is reliable & accurate


As it checks for error, it is complicated and costly in terms of network overhead.


UDP does not sequence the segment and does not care in which order the segments arrive at the destination. After it sends the segment it forgets about it and do not acknowledge it.



Because does not contact the destination before delivering information to it, it is considered as connectionless protocol.



It is fast but unreliable.


It is simple and does not increase network overhead.



Port Numbers

  • Both TCP and UDP can send data from multiple upper-layer applications at the same time. Port or Socket numbers keep track of different conversations crossing the network at any given time. Well-known port numbers are controlled by the IANA, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is responsible for assigning the values used for TCP/IP protocols and ports. Application that do not use well-known port numbers have them randomly assigned for specific range. This random port is referred to as an ephemeral port.


PORT Numbers are as follows

  • Numbers 1 to 1024 are considered Well-known ports

  • Numbers 1025 to 49151 are registered

  • Number 49152 to 65535 are private vendor assigned and are dynamic.




  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) TCP port 20 for Data

  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP) TCP port 21 for Control

  • TELNET TCP port 23

  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) TCP port 25

  • Domain Name System (DNS) TCP port 53 UDP port 53

  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (Server) DHCP UDP port 67

  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (Client) DHCP UDP port 68

  • Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) UDP port 69

  • Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) TCP port 80

  • Windows Product Activation TCP port 80 and 443

  • Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3) TCP port 110

  • Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) TCP port 119

  • Remote Procedure Call (RPC) TCP port 135

  • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) UDP port 161

  • Simple Network Management Protocol Trap UDP port 162

  • Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) TCT port 443

  • Secure Server Layer (SSL) TCP port 686

  • Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) UDP port 1701

  • Point to Point Tunneling protocol (PPTP) TCP port 1723

  • Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) TCP port 3389


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