Windows Server 2008

1. WINDOWS SERVER 2008 2. WINDOWS 2008 Editions 3. WINDOWS 2008 Server Core 4. APPROX. COST OF WINDOWS SERVER 2008 5. Upgrade / Migrate 6. Upgrade from previous OS 7. WINDOWS SERVER 2008 INSTALLATION 8. Windows Server 2008 Activation 9. Activation Method 10. RAID 11. BACKUP and RECOVERY 12. Wbadmin 13. BACKUP Utility 14. Windows Recovery Environment 15. Server Roles for WINDOWS SERVER 2008 16. IP-ADDRESSING and IPV4 17. IPV6 18. Remote Desktop Connection 19. Steps for Remote Desktop Pc from Client PC 20. Remote Desktops 21. MANAGING SERVER CORE 22. TERMINAL SERVICES (TS) 23. TERMINAL SERVICES MANAGER 24. MANGAING FILE AND PRINT SERVERS 25. Share Folder 26. Attrib (Attribute) 27. Windows Registry 28. Disk Quotas 29. Disaster Recovery Tools 30. MMC 31. Remote Assistance 32. Signed & Unsigned Driver 33. Hardware Profile 34. CHKDSK.EXE(Check Disk) 35. Disk Defragmenter (DFRG.MSC) 36. ACTIVE DIRECTORY REVIEW 37. Introduction to AD 38. TRUST 39. FSMO 40. GC (GLOBAL CATALOG) Server 41. Site 42. AD replication 43. Backup of Active Directory (DC) 44. Understanding USER, GROUP & COMPUTER 45. Create Local User & Multiple Users 46. GROUP SCOPE 47. Public and Private key encryption 48. Trust concept of CA working 49. ETHERNET CARDS 50. Availability and Security 51. General Server Security Issues 52. OSI MODEL 53. Data Encapsulation 54. TCP/IP or DoD Model 55. Protocol Working at Host to Host (Transport) layer 56. NETWORK MONITOR 57. Internet Information Services 58. Monitoring Tools 59. DNS [Domain Name System] 60. DNS ZONE 61. Remote Access Authentication Process 62. Remote Access Interview Question & Answer part 1 Tutorials Interview Question & Answer part 2 Tutorials Interview Question & Answer part 3 Tutorials Interview Question & Answer part 4 Tutorials Interview Question & Answer part 5 Tutorials Interview Question & Answer part 6 Tutorials Interview Question & Answer part 7 Tutorials
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RAID – Redundant Array of Inexpensive DISK tutorials



Strip set






Strip set with parity RAID





is a dynamic volume that content space from one disk upto 32 disk. It write data on one disk till it is full, then it write to other

No fault tolerant & No data redundancy It spreads data in blocks across multiple disks, better Performance. if one disk fails, all data is lost.

disk mirroring, all data is duplicated or ‘written to' a second hard disk. If one of the disks fails, the data still available on the second disk. Full fault tolerant

excellent fault tolerance & good performance. It stores parity information across all disks in the disk array and provides concurrent disk reads & writes

It starts as Mirror RAID-1 of 2 disks. Additional mirrors are added and then striped RAID 0. For each addition of disk, it must be added as PAIR of disk as mirror.

HDD Req.

Min 2, Max 32

Same space not required

Min 2, Max 32 identical volume space required


Identical volume space required

Min 3, Max 32

Identical volume space required

Min 4 (each in pair). Identical space require

Writing speed






Reading speed











If we loss 1 Hdd data can recover

If we lose 1 disk in mirror data can be recover. If we lose both disk in mirror we lose all data.

Investment cost for hdd

No Difference

No Difference

Half Hdd – Half Loss

1 HDD cost lose

Half Hdd loss


Spanned Volume

Description: Spanning


Spanned Volume is a dynamic volume that content space from Two disk upto 32 disk.

It writes data on one disk till it is full then it writes to other disk.

It gathers free space from many disks and allocates one Volume name.

You can create a spanned volume either by extending a simple volume to unallocated space from second disk & multiple disks.

There is no fault Tolerance.

You can shrink a spanned volume without losing data. In such a case number of disks involved may decrease.

You can extend a spanned volume maximum upto 32 disk, include unallocated areas from all disk and this way you can extend Capacity of volume.

As you notice in this example of spanned volume, all data is written on disk zero, that is data block number from 1 to 10, after space on disk drive 0 is full, it write data on second disk i.e. disk 1.


Biggest Drawback:- There is No Fault Tolerance for Spanned Volumes . Remember that from combine group of any disk, if any disk fail, All Data on Whole Volume could be lost.


Personally, I will never recommend implementation of Spanned Volume in live production, without considering Proper data backup and disaster recovery plan.


Striped Volume – RAID 0

Description: raid0

RAID stands for Redundant Array of Independent Disks, originally Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks

Striped Volume is also known as RAID 0 or Strip set without Parity.

A striped volume combines unallocated area from multiple hard disks from 2 to 32 into one volume.

Data is written alternately on each disk. So first block is written on 0th disk, 2nd on 1st disk, 3rd block on 0th disk and 4th on 1st disk.

It provides improved and faster performance for Reading and Writing, by distributing I/O across all disks configured as part of one set.

There is no Fault Tolerance.

You can delete a striped volume, but you can’t Shrink or Extend volume.


Biggest Drawback:- There is No Fault Tolerance for Striped Volumes . Remember that from combine group of any disk, if any disk fail, All Data on Whole Volume will be lost.


Striped volume could be used for PAGEFILE.SYS, it gives improved performance. While implementation of Striped volume in live production for data, consider your plan well in advance for proper data backup and disaster recovery.



Disk Mirroring & Disk Duplexing

RAID level 1, disk mirroring, or disk duplexing. To use RAID level 1 and establish what is called a disk mirror with the Windows, you need two installed hard drives. After you have established a mirror within Windows Disk Administrator, all data written to your first hard drive is also written to the second hard drive. This provides true fault tolerance. If one of your hard drives fails, the other drive can be used to recover data.


With Disk mirroring, only one hard drive controller card is used to support both hard drives. Here if drive controller card fail, both the hdd will fail.


Disk duplexing is the same as disk mirroring, with one exception: a second hard drive controller card is used; therefore disk duplexing is more fault tolerant than disk mirroring.


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