Windows 7

1. Microsoft Windows 7 tutorials 2. Module 1- Installation, Upgrading, and Migrating to Windows 7 tutorials 3. Editions of Windows 7 tutorials 4. Hardware Requirements for Installing Windows 7 tutorials 5. You can install Windows 7 in following different ways, including: 6. Consideration for Upgrading v/s Migrating tutorials 7. What is Migration tutorials 8. Migrating User Data and Settings tutorials 9. Performing an Image-Based Installation of Windows 7 tutorials 10.Configuring Disks and Device Drivers tutorials 11. Partitioning Disks in Windows 7 tutorials 12.GUID - GPT Disk tutorials 13.Disk Management tools tutorials 14. Simple Volume tutorials 15. Spanned and Striped Volumes tutorials 16. Maintaining Disks, Partitions, and Volumes tutorials 17. Disk Quota tutorials 18.Working with VHD Virtual Hard Disk tutorials 19. Device Driver in Windows 7 tutorials 20.System Restore tutorials 21.LAST KNOWN GOOD CONFIGURATION tutorials 22.Configure and Trouble shoot Network Connections tutorials 23.What is an IPv4 Address tutorials 24. Note - IPV4 25. IPv4 address classes tutorials 26.Default Gateway tutorials 27.Public and Private IPv4 Address tutorials 28.IPv6 Network Connectivity tutorials 29.IPv6 UNICAST ADDRESSES tutorials 30. IPv4 Address can be assigned by following types tutorials 31.Implementing Name Resolution tutorials 32. Trouble Shooting Network Connectivity tutorials 33. Implementing Wireless Security tutorials 34.Wireless network Technologies tutorials 35.What is Wireless Broadband tutorials 36.IEEE 802.11 tutorials 37.Wireless Network Configuration tutorials 38. Security Types tutorials 39. Implementing Network Security tutorials 40.Configuring Windows Firewall tutorials 41.Ports and Application tutorials 42.Important Application, Protocol and Port Number tutorials 43.Configure Inbound and Outbound Rules tutorials 44. Securing Network traffic tutorials

IPv4 address classes tutorials

  • IP addresses are divided into 5 classes i.e. A,B,C,D,E

  • Only addresses from class A,B & C are assigned to organization

  • Addresses from class D & E are reserved for special purpose.

  • Address 127.0.0.1 is reserved for loop-back address.

 

Simple IPv4 Network

Class

Range of First Octet

Number of networks

Number of Hosts per network

Default subnet mask

A

1 - 126

126

16,777,214

255.0.0.0

B

128 - 191

16,384

65,534

255.255.0.0

C

192 - 223

2,097,150

254

255.255.255.0

D

224 - 239

Class D reserved for Multicast address

E

240 - 255

Reserved for Experiment, Research and Development

 

Host

  • Host mean any device that have IP address. Most of the time it is referred to computer running some services in network. Any device that can send and receive IP packets is called IP Host.

 

Network ID

  • Network Identification refers to address that is used to identify the network. It is a portion of TCP/ID address that is used to identify devices on network.

  • Consider following example using default subnet mask

 

Device IPv4 Address Class Default Subnet Mask Network ID

  • 10.20.30.40 /8 A 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.0

  • Subnet mask Binary Notation 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000

  • 130.140.150.160 /16 B 255.255.0.0 130.140.0.0

  • Subnet mask Binary Notation 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000

  • 192.168.10.25 /24 C 255.255.255.0 192.168.10.0

  • Subnet mask Binary Notation 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

 

Complex IPv4 Network

  • In Simple Network Class A IP address is suffixed with /8, Class B with /16 and same way Class C with /24. Here 8, 16 and 24 suffix refers to subnet mask bits numbers for 1. In complex IPv4 network, we can use VLSM (Variable Length Subnet Masking). VLSM is also known as Classless addressing or CIDR Classless InterDomain Routing.

 

 

Subnet Bits in Mask

  • Subnet Bit that is no of additional “1” bits in subnet mask. So if you want to subnet your network, first estimate the number of segment you need. After you get number of segments required for subnet, refer following table. You may use formula 2^n where n is number of bits. And result will be number of subnet you will get.

 

 

Number of Bits

Formula 2^n

Number of subnet

1

2^1

2

2

2^2

4

3

2^3

8

4

2^4

16

5

2^5

32

6

2^6

64

7

2^7

128

8

2^8

256

 

 

Host Bits in Mask

  • Host bits refers to ‘0’ Bits in subnet mask. The mask’s host bit will determin how many host will be supported on a network. You can calculate it using formula 2^n-2. The result will give you maximum host that you can configure on that subnet.

 

Number of Bits

Formula 2^n-2

Number of Host

1

2^1 -2

0 - so not possible

2

2^2 -2

2

3

2^3 -2

6

4

2^4 -2

14

5

2^5 -2

30

6

2^6 -2

62

7

2^7 -2

126

8

2^8 -2

254

 

Simple Example no 1

  • If you want to have class ‘C’ IPv4 address resolution in you network 192.168.10.x.

  • Class would be C

  • Subnet mask would be 255.255.255.0

  • Binary notation for subnet mask 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

  • Total number of Network 1 bits /24

  • Total number of Host ‘0’ Bits 32 - 24 = 8

  • Total number of Hosts possible 2^n - 2

  • 2^8 - 2

  • 256 - 2

  • 254 Total number of Hosts addressable

  • So Your Network ID would be 192.168.10.0

  • IP Address of First Host 192.168.10.1

  • IP Address of Last Host would be 192.168.10.254

  • Broad Cast ID would be 192.168.10.255

 

 

Example of subnet - Variable Length Subnet Mask or CIDR

  • Now you want to subdivide or subnet network into 2 segments using 192.168.10.x IPv4 range.

  • Class would be C

  • Subnet mask Original 255.255.255.0

  • Original Binary Notation for 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

  • Subnet Mask

  • Now as we want to 2 subnets Network, we have to increase Network bit by 1.

  • NEW Binary Notation for 11111111.11111111.11111111.10000000

  • Subnet Mask

  • New Subnet Mask 255.255.255.128

  • Total Number of Network 1 Bits /25

  • Total number of Host ‘0’ Bits 32 - 25 = 7

  • Total number of Hosts possible 2^n - 2

  • 2^7 - 2

  • 128 - 2

  • 126 Hosts in Each Subnet

FIRST SUBNET SECOND SUBNET

  • So Your Network ID would be 192.168.10.0 192.168.10.128

  • IP Address of First Host 192.168.10.1 192.168.10.129

  • IP Address of Last Host would be 192.168.10.126 192.168.10.254

  • Broad Cast ID would be 192.168.10.127 192.168.10.255

 


 

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