Windows 8

1. Windows 8 2. Module 1 - Installing and Deploying Windows 8. 3. Windows 8 editions. 4. Advantage of 64 bit Processor. 5. Minimum hardware requirement for Windows 8 6. Option for installing Windows 8 7. Installation of Windows 8 8. Upgrading and Migrating to Windows 8 9. What is Upgrading 10. What is Migration 11. Migrating User Data and Settings 12. Migrating using USMT ( User State Migration Tool ) 13. MBR - Master Boot Record 14. GUID - GPT Disk. 15. Disk Management tools. 16. Simple Volume 17. Spanned and Striped Volumes 18. Maintaining Disks, Partitions, and Volumes 19. Disk Quota 20. Device Driver in Windows 8 21. System Restore 22. LAST KNOWN GOOD CONFIGURATION 23. Configure and Trouble shoot Network Connections 24. What is an IPv4 Address 25. Default Gateway 26. Public and Private IPv4 Address 27. IPv6 Network Connectivity 28. IPv4 Address can be assigned by following types 29. Implementing Name Resolution 30. Trouble Shooting Network Connectivity 31. Implementing Wireless Security 32. Wireless network Technologies 33. What is Wireless Broadband? 34. IEEE 802.11 35. Wireless Network Configuration 36. Security Types 37. Implementing Network Security. 38. Configuring Windows Firewall 39. Ports and Application 40. Important Application, Protocol and Port Number 41. Configure Inbound and Outbound Rules 42. Securing Network traffic 43. Configuring Windows Defender 44. Managing File Access 45. NTFS Standard permission for FOLDER 46. Preventing Permission Inheritance 47. Different ways to Share Folder 48. RULE for setting NTFS + SHARE PERMISSION 49. Managing Printers 50. SkyDrive 51. Securing Windows 8 Desktop 52. User Account Types and Rights 53. Windows Authentication Methods 54. Important Security Features in Windows 8 55. Managing EFS Certificates 56. BitLocker 57. Configuring BitLocker To Go 58. UAC - User Account Control 59. Configuring Application. 60. Application Compatibility Issue 61. Resolve Common Application Compatibility Issues 62. Office 365 63. Windows Store 64. LOB (Line Of Business) and Sideloading 65. Configuring Internet Explorer Settings 66. AppLocker 67. Optimizing and Maintaining Windows 8 Client Computers 68. Performance Monitor 69. Commonly used Performance Counters 70. Resource Monitor 71. Managing Reliability of Windows 8 72. Managing Windows 8 Updates 73. Configuring Mobile Computing and Remote Access 74. Tools for Configuring Mobile Computers and Device Setting 75. Configure VPN Access 76. Data encryption 77. VPN Tunneling Protocols 78. Configure Remote Desktop and Remote Assistance 79. Remote Assistance 80. DirectAccess 81. Hyper-V 82. VHD 83. Managing Snapshot 84. Troubleshooting and Recovery Options for Windows 8 85. Enable and configure Windows 7 File Recovery 86. Advance Troubleshoot now option 87. Windows 8 System Restore 88. Using Windows PowerShell
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What is an IPv4 Address tutorials

  • If you want to use Mobile number, you will need Hardware (Mobile phone and SIM Card) and software to make use of SIM card for receiving or making phone call. Same way if a device wants to communicate using TCP/IP, it needs an IP address. When a device has an IP address and appropriate software and hardware, it can send and receive IP packets.

 

IPV4

  • IPv4 stands for Internet Protocol Version 4.

  • IP address is a unique address to identify a host on a network.

  • IP address is made up of 32 Bits Binary numbers (Base 2). It is called as Binary notation.

  • Instead of using 32 bits Binary address at a time, 32 Bits Binary number is address in to 4 blocks of 8 Bits, called an octet.

  • Each Octet can be converted to a decimal number (Base 10) ranging from 0 to 255 and separated by a dot. It is called Dotted Decimal number.

  • Approximately 232 numbers of addresses can be assigned to roughly 4 Billion Host.

 

Binary System

  • In Computer Science and Mathematics, the Binary System represents numeric value using two symbols, 0 and 1 and base-2.

  • Numbers represented by 0 and 1 is commonly called Binary Numbers.

  • In day to day life we use Decimal Numbers, which includes 10 numbers i.e. (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9). Base for Decimal number is 10.

 

 

Note - IPV4

  • Most people think that their computer has an IP address, but in-fact NIC [Network Interface Card] or simply LAN card is assigned an IP address.

IP address can be assigned to

  • NIC Card Network Interface Card or simply LAN card.

  • Router.

  • Network Storage Device.

  • Network Printer.

  • IP Camera.

  • Note: We can assign more than one IP address to one LAN Card.

  • If computer does not have NIC then, we can install MS LOOP BACK adaptor and assign IP address to it. Although NIC is not present, it acts as if there is LAN card.

 

IPv4 address classes

  • IP addresses are divided into 5 classes i.e. A,B,C,D,E

  • Only addresses from class A,B & C are assigned to organization

  • Addresses from class D & E are reserved for special purpose.

  • Address 127.0.0.1 is reserved for loop-back address.

 

Simple IPv4 Network

Class

Range of First Octet

Number of networks

Number of Hosts per network

Default subnet mask

A

1 - 126

126

16,777,214

255.0.0.0

B

128 - 191

16,384

65,534

255.255.0.0

C

192 - 223

2,097,150

254

255.255.255.0

D

224 - 239

Class D reserved for Multicast address

E

240 - 255

Reserved for Experiment, Research and Development

 

Host

  • Host mean any device that have IP address. Most of the time it is referred to computer running some services in network. Any device that can send and receive IP packets is called IP Host.

Network ID

  • Network Identification refers to address that is used to identify the network. It is a portion of TCP/ID address that is used to identify devices on network.

  • Consider following example using default subnet mask

 

Device IPv4 Address Class Default Subnet Mask Network ID

10.20.30.40 /8 A 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.0

Subnet mask Binary Notation 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000

 

130.140.150.160 /16 B 255.255.0.0 130.140.0.0

Subnet mask Binary Notation 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000

192.168.10.25 /24 C 255.255.255.0 192.168.10.0

Subnet mask Binary Notation 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

 

Complex IPv4 Network

  • In Simple Network Class A IP address is suffixed with /8, Class B with /16 and same way Class C with /24. Here 8, 16 and 24 suffix refers to subnet mask bits numbers for 1. In complex IPv4 network, we can use VLSM (Variable Length Subnet Masking). VLSM is also known as Classless addressing or CIDR Classless InterDomain Routing.

 

Subnet Bits in Mask

  • Subnet Bit that is no of additional “1” bits in subnet mask. So if you want to subnet your network, first estimate the number of segment you need. After you get number of segments required for subnet, refer following table. You may use formula 2^n where n is number of bits. And result will be number of subnet you will get.

 

Number of Bits

Formula 2^n

Number of subnet

1

2^1

2

2

2^2

4

3

2^3

8

4

2^4

16

5

2^5

32

6

2^6

64

7

2^7

128

8

2^8

256

 

Host Bits in Mask

  • Host bits refers to ‘0’ Bits in subnet mask. The mask’s host bit will determin how many host will be supported on a network. You can calculate it using formula 2^n-2. The result will give you maximum host that you can configure on that subnet.

 

Number of Bits

Formula 2^n-2

Number of Host

1

2^1 -2

0 - so not possible

2

2^2 -2

2

3

2^3 -2

6

4

2^4 -2

14

5

2^5 -2

30

6

2^6 -2

62

7

2^7 -2

126

8

2^8 -2

254

 

Simple Example no 1

  • If you want to have class ‘C’ IPv4 address resolution in you network 192.168.10.x.

  • Class would be C

  • Subnet mask would be 255.255.255.0

  • Binary notation for subnet mask 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

  • Total number of Network 1 bits /24

  • Total number of Host ‘0’ Bits 32 - 24 = 8

  • Total number of Hosts possible 2^n - 2

  • 2^8 - 2

  • 256 - 2

  • 254 Total number of Hosts addressable

  • So Your Network ID would be 192.168.10.0

  • IP Address of First Host 192.168.10.1

  • IP Address of Last Host would be 192.168.10.254

  • Broad Cast ID would be 192.168.10.255

 

Example of subnet - Variable Length Subnet Mask or CIDR

  • Now you want to subdivide or subnet network into 2 segments using 192.168.10.x IPv4 range.

  • Class would be C

  • Subnet mask Original 255.255.255.0

  • Original Binary Notation for 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

  • Subnet Mask

  • Now as we want to 2 subnets Network, we have to increase Network bit by 1.

  • NEW Binary Notation for 11111111.11111111.11111111.10000000

  • Subnet Mask

  • New Subnet Mask 255.255.255.128

  • Total Number of Network 1 Bits /25

  • Total number of Host ‘0’ Bits 32 - 25 = 7

  • Total number of Hosts possible 2^n - 2

  • 2^7 - 2

  • 128 - 2

  • 126 Hosts in Each Subnet

FIRST SUBNET SECOND SUBNET

  • So Your Network ID would be 192.168.10.0 192.168.10.128

  • IP Address of First Host 192.168.10.1 192.168.10.129

  • IP Address of Last Host would be 192.168.10.126 192.168.10.254

  • Broad Cast ID would be 192.168.10.127 192.168.10.255

 

 

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